Fishery statistics and information systems
  Fishery shared resources
  The Project
  Social and economics fishery sciences
  AdriaMed - ASFA
  Events and News
  Fishery management
  Country fishery information



on adriamed

on the web


FAO-AdriaMed project. © FAO AdriaMed project - Web site. [online]. Rome. Updated. [Cited ].


Eledone cirrhosa
Eledone moschata
Loligo vulgaris
Lophius budegassa
Lophius piscatorius
Merlangius merlangus
Merluccius merluccius
Mullus barbatus
Nephrops norvegicus
Pagellus erythrinus
Parapenaeus longirostris
Sepia officinalis
Solea vulgaris











Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798)









Class:  Cephalopoda
Order:  Teuthida
Family:  Loliginidae
English name:  European squid
Local Name: 




 Obična lignja


 Calamaro comune






The body of the European squid is long, moderately slender and cylindrical. The fins are rhomboid and their length is two thirds of the mantle length. The posterior border is slightly concave. The head is relatively small with big eyes that are covered with a transparent membrane. There are ten arms around the mouth. Eight of them are relatively short, and two are long (tentacles) and are used to catch prey. The fourth left arm of males is a hectocotylus.

The colour of Loligo vulgaris is greyish-transparent or reddish, depending on expansion of the pigmented cells in the skin. On the mantle of the adult males there are small chromatophores. In the internal dorsal side of the mantle there is a supporting structure that is called gladius (Fisher et al., 1987; Jardas, 1996; Relini et al., 1999).


Loligo vulgaris can be found throughout the Mediterranean Sea and in the eastern Atlantic Ocean from the North Sea to the Gulf of Guinea (Jardas, 1996; Relini et al., 1999).

Adriatic Sea:
Grubišić (1982) showed that this species is distributed throughout the Adriatic Sea up to depths of 400 m. It inhabits all strata, but, during the spawning period, it migrates into shallower regions. Generally, European squid are most frequent at depths between 40 and 150 m. Gamulin-Brida and Ilijanić (1972) reported that this species lives in coastal regions, most often between 50 and 100 m deep. Based on research in the south Adriatic, Mandić, 1984 found that European squid resided in the coastal region up to a depth of 100 m. Nevertheless, it can be found up to 150 m, but rarely and in small quantities. In the Pomo/Jabuka Pit it was fished at all stations (Županović and Jardas, 1989). The species is present in the entire Adriatic. It is most frequent up to depths of 100 m (Mandić and Stjepčević, 1981; Flamigni and Giovanardi, 1984;
Soro and Piccinetti Manfrin, 1989; Županović and Jardas, 1989; Pastorelli et al., 1995; Casali et al., 1998; Krstulović Šifner, 2000).

It is a neritic, semi-demersal species, known for distinct horizontal and vertical migrations, depending on the environment. In the Adriatic, L. vulgaris occurs above different types of sea sediments; from sandy through sandy-muddy, to the muddy bottoms Gamulin-Brida and Ilijanić 1972; Casali et al., 1998).


European squid can grow up to 30 to 40 cm of the mantle length, but their usual size is 15 to 25 cm. The males are generally bigger than the females and they grow faster (Relini et al., 1999).

Length-weight relationship:
The growth shows negative allometry, as can be seen from the length-weight relation data obtained by different authors.

Total Length (TL, cm) – weight (g) relationship.

Author Sex a b

Flamigni and Giovanardi, 1984

M+F 0.4703 2.788

Marano, 1993

M+F 0.113 2.511

Krstulović Šifner, 2000

M 0.008 2.3501
F 0.005 2.4524
M+F 0.05 2.4181

Flamigni and Giovanardi, 1984 and Krstulović Šifner, 2000 found that males dominate in the population during springtime. This can be a consequence of the female after-spawning mass mortality. However, the sampling methods used and different behaviour patterns of males and females can also influence sex ratio in the samples (Krstulović Šifner, 2000).

Although, L. vulgaris reproduce all year long in the Adriatic, it is most intensive in the winter-spring period (Flamigni and Giovanardi, 1984;
Soro and Piccinetti Manfrin, 1989; Krstulović Šifner, 2000). Mantle length at the first sexual maturity is shown in the table. After spawning most individuals die, thus, typical European squid live for only one year and do not regenerate gonads and reproduce again. The average number of oocytes in females is about 6000. They are each about 1,6 mm long. A weak positive correlation between mantle length and number of eggs is found. The number of spermatophores in males is from 15 to 310 and their length from 7,5 to 14 mm (Krstulović Šifner, 2000).

Length at the first sexual maturity:

Mantle Length (ML, cm) at the first sexual maturity.

Author Sex

ML, cm

Flamigni and Giovanardi, 1984

M 11.8
F 15.8

Mandić, 1984

M 11.0-12.0
F 12.0-13.0

Soro and Piccinetti Manfrin, 1989

M 14.0-15.0
F 15.0-16.0

Krstulović Šifner, 2000

M 12.0
F 15.0-16.0

Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF).
Parameters of the Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF).


Sex L(cm) K(yr-1) t0(yr)

Krstulović Šifner, 2000

M+F 238.02 1.74 0.06

Feeding behaviour:
The European squid feeds on fish, crustaceans and cephalopods, but fish is the major, sometimes the only, component. In some areas, polychaetes and chaetognaths are prey as well. Cannibalism was also observed (Relini et al., 1999).


During the expedition MEDITS (996-1998) in the central and northern Adriatic, the average value of the catch for the entire area studied, was from 0,50 to 0,81 kg/km2. The highest catch was recorded in the 50 m stratum (Krstulović Šifner, 2000).

An analysis of the commercial landings at the Split fish market from 1995-1999 showed marked seasonality of the catch, with peaks in the winter months (
Krstulović Šifner, 2000). In the period from 1982 to 1991, the CPUE from the “Pipeta” expedition values in the central and northern Adriatic, showed marked fluctuations without a clear trend (Piccinetti and Piccinetti Manfrin, 1994).


Loligo vulgaris has a considerable commercial value. The species is caught in multispecies trawl fishing throughout the year and, seasonally, in small scale and recreational fishing with a variety of gear (
Relini et al., 1999).

Fisheries Statistics:

The total annual catch of the species in the Adriatic Sea (GFCM) is about 1.000 to 1.500 tonnes. It shows wide variations and this is probably linked to the production cycle that is typical for many cephalopods (Mannini and Massa, 2000).

Lologo spp. capture fishery production (Adriatic Sea*). Data: FAO-FISHSTAT (GFCM (Mediterranean and Black Sea) capture production 1970-2003 (Release date: May 2005) Regional dataset available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/stat/windows/fishplus/gfcm.zip.

*According to GFCM definition of statistical sub-areas the Adriatic Sea falls within the area 2.1, thus including only the Northern and Central basins, while the Southern Adriatic basin and consequently the coast of South-eastern Italy and of Albania are included in the Ionian Sea (area 2.2). In order to have as comprehensive a picture as possible of all Adriatic Sea fishery production, Albanian data originally classified as from the Ionian Sea have been included in the Adriatic data set used. Unfortunately, this was not feasible for South-western Italy (Apulia Region).




Relevant genetic results

Population biology and ecology issues

Genetic diversity Genetic differentiation
Loligo vulgaris

Number of alleles: 5-21 (mean 13.3) Heterozigosity. 53% - 94% (mean 68%)
HWE fitting: 77.5%
The Adriatic samples stock showed high genetic variability and appear to be in equilibrium.

Fixation indices among Adriatic samples were low and not significant
The Adriatic samples resulted highly homogeneous for genetic allele structure,

The high genetic diversity and homogeneity of Adriatic stock suggested the occurrence of a single highly panmictic population unit probably of large dimension.
The continental slope present in the southern part of Adriatic Sea does not act as a barrier against the migration for this highly mobile species.



Scientific name

Common name

Project framework

Sampling (Survey) Development of genetic marker (type & number of markers) Genetic structure (analysed samples, geographic areas) Population units in the Adriatic shared stock Reference associated

Loligo vulgaris

European squid IPUAS, FAO-AdriaMed
(MEDITS 2001)

(microsatellites, 6 optimised loci)

(4; NA,MA,SA)

Single panmictic unit
Final report of AdriaMed IPUAS research programme;
Guarniero et al. 2003; Garoia et al. 2004a.


Minimum size:

Species (local or common name)

Species (scientfic name)

Minimum size in cm or
minimum weight in kg

It is strictly prohibited to fish and sell any aquatic species less than the minimum regulatory size as set out in Article 48.1 of Fisheries Regulations No.1 of 1997.


Loligo spp.



Obična lignja




Calamaro comune











REFERENCES click to enlarge

Abella, A.J., Serena, F. (1998) Stato di sfruttamento del nasello nei compartimenti di pesca di Livorno e Viareggio. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(2): 136-150.

AdriaMed. (2000) Priority topics related to shared demersal fishery resources of the Adriatic Sea. Report of the first meeting of the AdriaMed Working Group on shared demersal resources. FAO-MiPAF Scientific Cooperation to Support Responsible Fisheries in the Adriatic Sea. GCP/RER/010/ITA/TD-02: 21 pp.

Alegria Hernandez, V., Granić, V., Jukić, S. (1982) The protection of the hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) in the Adriatic Sea by regulation of the level of exploitation. Acta Adriat., 23 (1/2): 431-440.

Alegria Hernandez, V., Jukić, S. (1990) Some aspects of biology and population dynamics of Hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Adriatic Sea. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer. Medit., 32 (1): 265.

Alegria Hernandez, V., Jukić, S. (1992) Abundance dynamics of the hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) from the middle Adriatic Sea. Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., Monaco, n. special 11: 161pp.

Alfirević, S., Crnković, D., Gamulin Brida, H. (1969) Problem racionalne eksploatacije škampa (Nephrops norvegicus L.). Thalassia Jugosl., 5: 5-12.

Ardizzone, G.D. (1998) Un tentativo di valutazione delle condizioni di Merluccius merluccius e Mullus barbatus nei mari italiani. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(2): 151-168.

Arneri, E. (1996) Fisheries resources assessment and management in Adriatic and Ionian Seas. FAO Fish. Rep., 533: 7-20.

Arneri, E., Jukić, S. (1986) Some preliminary observations on the biology and dynamics of Mullus barbatus in the Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep., 345: 79-86.

Bello, G., Marano, G., Rizzi., Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1986) Preliminary survey on the Adriatic hake, Merluccius merluccius, within the Demersal Resources Assessment Programme, Spring 1985 survey. FAO Fish. Rep., 345: 200-204.

Bertrand, J. (1995) Campagnes internationales de chalutage demersal en Mediteranee (MEDITS). Campagne 1994. Manuel des protocoles. Rapp. de Contract EC-IFREMER-IEO-SIBM-NCMR (MED93: 020-018 006004): 27 pp.

Bertrand, J., Gil de Sola, L., Papaconstatinou, C., Relini, G. and Souplet, A. (1997) An international bottom trawl survey in the Mediterranean: the MEDITS programme. ICES CM 1997-03: 16 pp.

Beverton, R.J.H. and S.J. Holt (1956) A rewiev of methods for estimating martality rates in expoited fish populations, with special references to sources of bias in catch sampling. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. CIEM, 140: 67-83.

Bini, G. (1968-70) Atlante dei pesci delle coste italiane. 1-10. Mondo Sommerso Roma.

Bolje, A. (1992) Kvantitativna i kvalitativna analiza kočarskih naselja u tršćanskom zaljevu. Master thesis. Sveučilište u Zagrebu., 64 pp.

Bombace, G. (1972) Considerazioni sulla distribuzione delle populazioni di livelo batiale con particolare riferimento quelle bentoniche. Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca. 1(4): 65-82.

Bombace, G., Cingolani, N. (1986) Résultats pratique du programme de recherche “Étude de faisabilité pour un system d’echantillonnage des statistiques de pęche” (programme PESTAT). FAO Fish. Rep., 345: 57-59.

Bombace, G., Cingolani, N. (1988) Distribution de l’effort de pęches dans les pęcheries des mers italiennes, densité (CV/n mi2) et CPUE (KG/CV) pour les différents métiers de pęche. In: Caddy, J.F. and Savini, M. (eds). Report of the fifth technical Consultation of the General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean on stock assessment in the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. Bari, Italy, 1-5 june 1987. FAO Fish. Rep., 394: 234-244.

Bougis, P., Mužinić, R. (1958) Sur la croissance de Mullus barbatus (L.) dans les eaux de Split. Acta Adriat., 8(9):14 pp.

Buljan, M., Zore-Armanda, M. (1971) Osnovi oceanografije i pomorske meteorologije. Institut za oceanografiju i ribarstvo, Split, 424 p.

Caddy, J.F. (1993) Some future perspectives for assessment and management of Mediterranean fisheries. Scientia Marina, 57(2-3): 121-130.

Casali, G. Manfrin Piccinetti, S. Soro, (1998) Distribuzione di cefalopodi in Alto e Medio Adriatico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(2): 307-318.

Cetinić, P., (Coordinator). (1999) Istraživanje kompetitivnih odnosa između ribolova pridnenim povlačnom povlačnom mrežom (koćom), vršama za lov škampa i jednostrukim mrežema stajačicama za lov oslića u velebitskom kanalu, s posebnim osvrtom na populaciju škampa i oslića. IOF, Split, 53 pp.

Coppola, S.R., Cingolani, N. (1992) Assessment of catch and effort of Italian fleet by fishing areas based on “PESTAT” data. FAO Fish. Rep., 468: 36-68.

Cristo, M., Cartes, J.E. (1998) A comparative study of the feeding ecology of Nephrops norvegicus (L) in the bathyal Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1), 81-90.

Crnković, D. (1959) Contribution to the study of economically valuable benthonic species of the channels of the north-eastern Adriatic. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Comm.int. Explor. scient. Mer Medit., 5: 355-363.

Crnković, D. (1964) Utjecaj koćarenja na bentoska naselja u kanalskom području sjeveroistočnog Jadrana. 11(5): 47-57.

Crnković, D. (1965) Ispitivanje ekologije i mogućnosti racionalnog unaprijeđenja eksploatacije raka Nephrops norvegicus (L) u kanalskom području sjeveroistočnog Jadrana. Disertacija, PMF Sveučilišta u Zagrebu.

Crnković, D. (1970) Prilog biološkoj i ekonomskoj problematici koćarenja u kanalskom području sjeveroistočnog Jadrana. Thalassia Jugosl., 6: 5-90.

D'Ancona, U. (1949) Il differenziamento della gonade e l'inversione sessuale degli Sparidi. Arch. Oceanogr. Limnol., 6(2/3): 97-139.

De Zio V., Ungaro, N., Vlora, A., Strippoli, G. (1998) Lo stock di nasello del basso Adriatico: Struttura demografica e rendimenti di pesca della frazione catturata con palangaro di fondo. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5 (2): 128-135.
EC XIV/298/96-EN (1996) Report of the Group of independent Experts to Advise the European Commission on the Fourth Generation of Multi-annual Guidance Programmes.

Fabi, G. (2001) Sepia officinalis: impact of three set of fishing techniques in the Adriatic and the Ligurian Sea. Study contract No. 98/069. IRPEM-C.I.B.M. 119 pp.

Ferretti, M., Froglia, C. (1975) Results of selectivity experiments, made with different trawls, on more important Adriatic demersal fish. Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca., 2(1): 3-16.

Fiorentini, L., Dremiere, P.Y. (1999) ESMED Efficacy and selectivity of trawl used for the MEDITS project. Study Proposal, No. 95/29:118 pp.

Fisher, W., Schneider, M., Bauchot, M.L. (eds.) (1987) Fishes FAO d’identification des espčces pour les besoins de la pęche. Mediterranée et mer Noire. Vol. I – II., Rome, FAO. 1-2: 760 p.

Flamigni, C. (1983) Preliminary utilization of trawl surwey data for hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) population dynamics in the Adriatic Sea. FAO Rapp. Pechs / FAO Fish.Rep., (290): 109-115.

Flamigni, C., Giovanardi, O. (1984) Biological data, collected during the Pipeta expeditions, on the squid Loligo vulgaris Lam. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 143-146.

Fonda Umani, S., Franco, P., Ghirardelli, E., Malej, A. (1990) Outline of oceanography and phytoplankton of the Adriatic Sea. 'The Adriatic Sea': Papers presented at the 25th European marine Biology Symposium, University of Ferrara: 25-43.

Frattini, C., Casali, P. (1998) Distribuzione di Gadiformi in Alto e Medio Adriatico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(2): 82-98.

Frattini, C., Paolini, M. (1995) Ruolo delle acque profonde quale nursery per Merluccius merluccius (L.). Biol. Mar. Medit., 2(2): 281-286.

Froglia, C. (1972) Osservazioni sulle variazioni di cattura dello scampo, Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in riferimento all’etologia ed alla biologia della specie. Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca., 1(4): 83-100.

Froglia, C. (1973) Osservazioni sull’alimentazione del merluzzo (Merluccius merluccius L.) del medio Adriatico. Atti V. Congr. Naz.Coc. It. Biol. Mar., Ed. Salentina nardo, 327-341.

Froglia, C. (1982) Contribution to the knowledge of the biology of Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas) (Decapoda, Penaeoidea). Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca., 3(2-5): 163-168.

Froglia, C. (1988) Food preferences of juvenile Red mullet Mullus barbatus in Western Adriatic nursery ground (Osteichthyes: Mullidae) Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 31(2): 263.

Froglia, C., Atkinson, R.J., Tuck, I.D., Arneri, E. (1997) Underwater television survey, a tool to estimate Nephrops stock biomass on the Adriatic trawling grounds. In: Tisuću godina prvog spomena ribarstva u Hrvata. Finka B. (Ed.), HAZU, Zagreb, 657-667.

Froglia, C., Galli, B. (1970) Selettivitŕ e capacitŕ di cattura di una rete a strascico di tipo italiano su popolazioni di Mullus barbatus L. Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca, Ancona, 1(1): 1-20.

Froglia, C., Giannetti, G. (1985) Growth of common sole Solea vulgaris Quensel in the Adriatic Sea. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 29 (8): 91-93.

Froglia, C., Giannetti, G. (1986) Remarks on rings formation in otoliths of Solea vulgaris and other flatfishes from the Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep., 345: 121-122.

Froglia, C., Gramitto, M. E. (1981) Summary of biological parameters on the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), in the Adriatic. FAO Fish. Rep., (253): 165 – 178.

Froglia, C., Gramitto, M.E. (1979) An estimate of the fecundity of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) in the Adriatic Sea. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 25/26 (4): 227-229.

Froglia, C., Gramitto, M.E. (1982) Effetti della crisi di ossigeno del 1977 sulla pesca degli scampi in Adriatico. Bollettino dei Musei e degli Istituti Biologici dell’ Universitŕ di Genoa, 50 (Suppl.): 195-201.

Froglia, C., Gramitto, M.E. (1986) Diurnal changes in fishery resources catchabillity by bottom trawl in the Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep., 345: 111-118.

Froglia, C., Gramitto, M.E. (1988) An estimate of growth and mortality parameters for Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) in the Central Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep., 394: 189-203.

Froglia, C., Magistrelli, F. (1976) Considerazioni sulla pesca delle seppie con attrezzature selettive nell’alto e medio Adriatico. Gazzettino della pesca, 23(5): 1-2.

Gamulin-Brida, H., Ilijanić, V. (1972) Contribution ŕla connaissance des Cephalopodes de l’Adriatique. Acta Adriat., 14 (6): 3-12.

Garoia, Flavio, Guarniero, Ilaria & Tinti, Fausto (2003). Polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellites for the Mediterranean angler species (Lophiidae). Molecular Ecology Notes 3 (2), 294-296.

Garoia, F., Guarniero I., Ramšak, A., Ungaro N., Landi M., Piccinetti, C., Mannini, P., & Tinti, F. (2004) Microsatellite DNA variation reveals high gene flow and panmictic populations in the Adriatic shared stocks of the European squid and cuttlefish (Cephalopoda). Heredity 93(2): 1–9.

Garoia F., Guarniero, I., Piccinetti, C. & Tinti, F. (2004) First Microsatellite Loci of Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus) and their Application to Genetic Structure Analysis of Adriatic Shared Stock. Marine Biotechnology, 6 (5):446-452.

General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM). (2001) Report of the twenty-six session. Lacco Ameno, Ischia, Italy, 10-13 September 2001. GFCM Report. No 26. Rome, FAO, 27 pp.

Ghirardelli, E. (1959a) Contribution ŕ l’étude de la biologie des soles (Solea solea) en moyenne Adriatique. Proc. gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 5: 481-487.

Ghirardelli, E. (1959b) Contribution ŕ la connaissance de la biologie du merlu (Merluccius merluccius L.) eu moyenne Adriatique. Proc. gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 5: 489-494.

Giovanardi, O., Rizzoli, M. (1984) Biological data, collected during expeditions Pipeta, on the whiting, Merlangius merlangius (L.) in the Adriatic Sea. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 149-153.

Giovanardi, O., Rizzoli, M., Jukić, S. (1986) Preliminary consideration on the fishery management of the hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) stock in the Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep., (345): 71-77.

GMS-GRUND (Gruppo Metodologie Statistiche – GRU.N.D). (1998) Valutazioni preliminari relative all’introduzione della taglia minima di 20 cm per il nasello nella realtŕ della pesca a strascico italiana. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(3): 140-155.

Gramitto, M.E. (1998) Molt pattern Identification through gastrolith examination on Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1), 17-23.

Gramitto, M.E., Froglia, C. (1980) Osservazioni sul potenziale reproduttivo dello scampo (Nephrops norvegicus) in Adriatico. Memorie di Biologia Marina e di Oceanografia, 10 (Suppl.): 213-218.

Granić, B., Jukić, S. (1982) Selektivnost i zaštita demerzalnih resursa Jadranskoga mora s posebnim osvrtom na populaciju oslića, Merluccius merluccius (L.), pravilnim izborom veličine okca na saki dubinske povlačne mreže (koće). Ichtyologia. 14 (1): 1-11.

Grubišić, F. (1980) Prilozi za poznavanje sezona mriještenja nekih jadranskih riba u području srednje Dalmacije. Morsko Ribarstvo 32 (4): 151-152.

Grubišić, F. (1982) Ribe, rakovi i školjke Jadrana. Liburnija – Naprijed, Rijeka – Zagreb, 239 pp.

Guarniero, I., Garoia, F., Di Placido, R., Ramšak, A., Mannini, P., Tinti, F. 2003. Species-specific microsatellite loci for the European squid (Loligo vulgaris). Molecular Ecology Notes 3(2): 312-313.

Guarniero I. (2004) Identification of population units of Mediterranean fishery resources by genetic structure analysis. PhD Thesis in Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Ravenna.

Guescini, A., Piccinetti Manfrin, G., Piccinetti, C. (1983) Distribution des larves de Mullus barbatus L. en Adriatique. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Medit., 28(5): 155-158.

Gulland, J.A. (1968) Manual of methods for fish stock assessment. Part I. Fish population analysis. FAO Fisheries Technical Papers (Revision 2) 40: 97 pp.

Haidar, Z. (1970) L’oecologie du rouget (Mullus barbatus L.) en Adriatique orientale. Acta Adriat., 14 (1): 1-94.

Heldt, H. (1938) La reproduction chez les crustacés Decapodes de la famillie des peneides. Ins. Oceanogr., 18: 31-206.

Hrvatski hidrografski institut. (1999) Peljar. Jadransko more – istočna obala. Hrvatski hidrografski institut, Split. 331 pp.

IMBC, UMBSM, IRPEM (1994) Nephrops norvegicus: stock variability and assessment in relation to fishing pressure and environmental factors. Final Report to the Commission Of the European Communities, Contract XIV.1/MED/91/003, 84 p + figures and appendicies.

Jardas, I. (1976) Contribution to the knowledge of the biology of hake in the Adriatic Sea. Rev. Trav. Inst. Peches marit., 40 (3 et 4): 615-618.

Jardas, I. (1987) On the biology and ecology of Lophius species (Teleostei, Lophiidae) in the Adriatic Sea. Proc. V Congr. europ. Ichthyol., Stockholm 1985, 181-185.

Jardas, I. (1996) Jadranska ihtiofauna. Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 536 pp.

Joksimović, A. 1999. Length-weight relationship of pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Montenegrin shelf. Acta Biologica Iugoslavica- Ichthyologia, 31(1): 9-21.

Joksimović, A. 1999. State, Structure and Exploitation Level of Red Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758), Population in the Montenegrin Coastal Waters. M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kragujevac: 73p.

Joksimović, A. 2000. Biomass estimate and maximum sustainable yield of pandora Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758) in trawling fisheries at Montenegrin shelf. Acta Biologica Iugoslavica-Ichthyologia, 32(1): 17-29.

Joksimović, A., 2001. Growth of pandora, Pagellus erythrinus in Montenegrin shelf (South Adriatic). 36th Congress Commision Internationale pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la mer Mediterranee, CIESM,Septembre 24-28. 2001. Monte-Carlo. Conference proceedings.

Joksimović, A., 2004. Mortality of pandora, Pagellus erythrinus in Montenegrin shelf (South Adriatic). 37th Congress Commision Internationale pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la mer Mediterranee, CIESM, June 7-11. 2004. Barcelona. Conference proceedings.

Joksimovic, A. 2005. Population Dynamic of Red mullet Mullus barbatus, Linnaeus, 1758 in the Montenegrin shelf. Doctoral dissertation. Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade: 93p.

Jukić, S. (1971) Studies on the population and catchabilltiy of Norway lobster in the central Adriatic. FAO Stud. Rev., 48: 27-52.

Jukić, S. (1972) Ishrana oslića (Merluccius merluccius), bukve (Boops boops) trlje (Mullus barbatus) i arbuna (Pagellus erythrinus) u Kaštelanskom zaljevu. Acta Adriat., 14 (4): 1-40

Jukić, S. (1974) The Yugoslav Nephrops fishery. Acta Adriat., 15 (8):1-18.

Jukić, S. (1975) Koćarska područja u srednjem Jadranu. Acta Adriat., 17 (1): 1-86.

Jukić, S., Arneri, E. (1984) Distribution of hake (Merluccius merluccius L.), Red mullet (Mullus barbatus L.) and Pandora (Pagellus erythrinus L.) in the Adriatic sea. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 85-91.

Jukić, S., Crnković, D. (1974) Stanje naselja pridnenih jestivih vrsta u Jadranu. Acta Adriat., 16 (8): 137-156.

Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1974) Influence des facteurs biologiques, technologiques, sociaux et économiques sur la pęche en Adraitique. FAO; CGPM (Resume). Varna, Bulgaria, 7-9 Mars 1974.

Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1979) Standing stock estimation and yield per exploitable biomass (YEB) forecast of the Adriatic edible demersal resources. Inv. Pesq., 43 (1): 273-288.

Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1981) Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of demersal resources in the Adriatic sea with some population dynamic estimates. FAO, Fish. Rep., 253: 73-91.

Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1987) Biological and economic aspects of mesh size regulation in the multispecies demersal fishery of the Adriatic Sea. Acta Adriat. 28(1/2): 199-219.

Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1988) Contribution to the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of the application of 40 mm codend mesh size in Adriatic trawl fishery – Eastern Adriatic coast. FAO Fish. Rep. 394: 282-290.

Jukić, S., Županović, Š. (1965) Relations entre la température et l’intensité de l'alimentation chez Mullus barbatus L. et Pagellus erythrinus L. dans Baie de Kaštela. FAO Proc. gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 8: 173-177.

Jukić-Peladić, S., Vrgoč, N., Dadić, V., Krstulović-Šifner, S., Piccinetti, C., Marčeta, B. (1999) Spatial and temporal distribution of some demersal fish populations in the Adriatic Sea described by GIS technique. Acta Adriat. 40: 55-66.

Karlovac, J. (1965) Contribution ŕ la conaissance de l’oecologie du merlu, Merluccius merluccius L., dans le stade planctonique de vie en Adriatique. Rapp. Comm. int. mer Medit., 18 (2): 461-464.

Karlovac, J., Karlovac, O. (1968) Lophius piscatorius L. dans les eaux de la haute Adriatique, dans toutes les phases de sa vie (Note preliminaire). Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 19(3): 537-540.

Karlovac, O. (1949) Le Parapenaeus longirostris (H. Lucas) de la haute Adriatique. Acta Adriat., 3(12): 407-418.

Karlovac, O. (1953) An ecolocical study of Nephrops norvegicus (L) of the high Adriatic. Izv. rep. Rib.biol. Eksp.”Hvar” 1948-49, 5(2C): 1-50.

Karlovac, O. (1959) La nourriture du merlu (Merluccius merluccius L.) de la haute Adriatique. FAO Proc. Gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 5: 333-339.

Kirinčić, J., Lepetić, V. (1955) Recherches sur l’ichthyobentos dans les profondeurs de l’Adriatique méridionale et possibilité d’exploitation au moyen des palangres. Acta Adriat., 7 (1): 1-113.

Krstulović Šifner, S. (2000) Prilog poznavanju biologije i ekologije lignje, Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798) u Jadranu. Master Thesis. Sveučilište u Zagrebu. 98 pp.

Lepetić, V. (1965) Sastav i sezonska dinamika ihtiobentosa i jestivih avertebrata u Bokokotorskom zaljevu i mogućnost njihove eksploatacije. Studia Marina, Kotor, 1: 1-161.

Levi, D., Andreoli, M.G., Arneri, E., Giannetti, G., Rizzo, P. (1994) Otolith reading as a tool for stock identification. Fisheries Research, 20: 97-107.

Levi, D., Froglia, C., Scorcelletti, R. (1971) Selettivitŕ di una rete di tipo relingato (chalut a grande ouverture verticale). Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca, Ancona 1(2): 23-35.

Levi, D., Giannetti, G. (1972) Analisi sullo stato di sfruttamento di una popolazione ittica mediante un modello matematico di cattura e sforzo. Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca, Ancona. 1 (4): 101-114.

Mandić, S. (1984) Cefalopoda južnog Jadrana. Studia Marina, Kotor. 15-16: 3-77.

Mandić, S., Stjepčević, J. (1981) Mouvements migratories de quelques espčces de cephalopodes économiquement importantes dans l’Adriatique meridionale. Rapp. Comm.int. Mer Medit., 27 (5): 213-216.

Manfrin Piccinetti, G., Giovanardi, O. (1984) Données sur la biologie de Sepia officinalis L. dans l’Adriatique obtenues lors de expéditions Pipeta. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 135-138.

Manfrin Piccinetti, G., Rizzoli, M. (1984) Données recueilles au cours des expéditions Pipeta sur la biologie de Eledone moschata (Lam.) en Adriatique. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 139-141.

Mannini, P., Massa, F. (2000) Brief overview of Adriatic fisheries landing trends (1972-97). In: F. Massa and P. Mannini (eds), Report of First Meeting of the Adriamed Coordination Committee. FAO-MiPAF Scientific Cooperation to Support responsible Fisheries in the Adriatic sea. GCP/RER/010/ITA/TD-01: 31-49.

Mantovani, B., Scali, V. (1992) Allozyme characterization of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, of two Adriatic trawling grounds. Acta Adriat., 33(1/2): 209-213.

Marano, G., (ed.) (1985) Valutazione delle risorse ittiche demersali del Basso Adriatico (Anno 1985). Min. Mar. Mer., Roma.

Marano, G., (ed.) (1987) Valutazione delle risorse demersali dell’Adriatico meridionale dal promotorio del Gargano al capo d’Otranto: proseguimento indagine ’87-’88. Min. Mar. Mer., Roma.

Marano, G., (ed.) AA.VV. (1993) Valutazione delle risorse demersali dell’Adriatico meridionale dal promotorio del Gargano al capo d’Otranto: Relazione finale triennio ’90-’93. Min. Mar. Mer., Roma

Marano, G., (ed.) AA.VV. (1996) Valutazione delle risorse demersali dell’Adriatico meridionale dal promotorio del Gargano al Capo d’Otranto: relazione finale triennio ’94-‘96. M. R. A. A. F., Roma

Marano, G., Casavola, N., Vaccarella, R., Paganelli, A., (1977) Osservazioni sulla pesca a strascico lungo il litorale di Bari. Oebalia III: 17-31.

Marano, G., De Zio, V., Pastorelli, A., Rizzi, E., Ungaro, N., Vaccarella, R. (1994) Considerazioni sullo stato di sfruttamento delle risorse demersali (Basso Adriatico). Atti Sem. sulla Regolaz. Sforzo Pesca. Biol. Mar. Medit. 1 (2): 89-94.

Marano, G., De Zio, V., Pastorelli, A., Rizzi E., Ungaro, N., Vaccarella, R., (1993) La valutazione delle risorse demersali dei mari italiani: sintesi dell’attivitŕ operativa “A9” (Basso Adriatico). N.T.R.I.T.P.P., Special Publication, 2:169-171.

Marano, G., Marsan, R., Pastorelli, A.M., Vaccarella, R. (1998a) Areale di distribuzione e pesca dello scampo, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), nelle acque del basso Adriatico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5 (2): 284-292.

Marano, G., Ungaro, N., Marano, C.A., Marsan, R. (1998b) La ricerca sulle risorse demersali del bacino Adriatico sud-occidentale (anni 1985-97): sintesi dei risultati. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5 (3): 109-119.

Marano, G., Ungaro, N., Marzano, M.C., Marsan, R. (1998c) Le risorse demersali dell’Adriatico pugliese: Analisi di una serie storica (‘85-’95) relativa ai dati di cattura e demografia degli stock. Biol.Mar. Medit., 5 (2): 52-67.

Marčeta, B. (1996) Pojavljanja nekaterih vrst rib in glavonožcev v slovenskem morju. Annales (Koper), 6(9): 17-30.

Marrs, S.J., Tuck, I.D., Arneri, E., Atkinson, R.J.A., Santojanni, A., Stevenson, T.D.I. (2000) Improvement of Nephrops stock assessment by use micro-scale mapping of effort and landings. Final Report EC Study Contract 97/0100.

Matta, F. (1954) Il merluzzo del Mediterraneo II. Biol. Pesca Piscicolt. Idrobiol. 9(1): 2-29.

Maurin, C. (1965) Les merlus des mers européennes et nord-ouest africanes. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 18 (2):215-220.

Merker, K., Ninčić, T. (1973) Sastav i gustina bentoskih ihtio-naselja u južnom Jadranu. Studia Marina, Kotor, 6:75-117.

Mortera, J., Levi, D., Cingolani, N. (1984) Progress Report on the PESTAT programme: A simple survey system for the quality check of fisheries statistics. FAO Fish. Rep. 290: 175-177.

Mytilineou, C.H., Castro, M., Gancho, P., Fourtouni, A. (1998a) Growth studies on Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in different areas of Mediterranean Sea and adjacent Atlantic. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1), 43-60.

Mytilineou, C.H., Politou, C.-Y., Fourtouni, A. (1998b) Trawl selectivity studies on Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1), 107-116.

Orsi Relini, L., Zamboni, A., Fiorentino, F., Massi, D. (1998) Reproductive patterns in Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.) of different Mediterranean areas. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1), 25-41.

Pagotto, G., Piccinetti, C. (1982) Censimento della popolazione di Solea vulgaris Quensel 1814. in Adriatico mediante marcatura. Atti del I Seminario Italiano sui Censimenti Faunistici. Metodi e applicabilitŕ alla gestione territoriale, Urbino, 21-22 settembre ’82: 345-359.

Pagotto, G., Piccinetti, C., Specchi, M. (1979) Premičres résultats des campagnes de marquage des soles en Adriatique: déplacements. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Medit., 25/26 (10): 111-112.

Pastorelli A.M., Vaccarella, R., Marano, G., Ungaro, N. (1996) I crostacei dei fondi strascicabili del basso Adriatico. Nova Thalassia, 12: 27-35.

Pastorelli, A.M., Vaccarella, R., Marsan, R., Marzano, M.C. (1998) Valutazione delle risorse demersali nel basso Adriatico pugliese (1990-1995): Cefalopodi. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5 (2): 326-335.

Pastorelli, A.M., Vaccarella, R., de Zio, V. (1995) Distribuzione dei cefalopodi commerciali nel basso Adriatico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 2 (2): 501-502.

Pauly, D. (1984) Fish population dynamics in tropical waters: a manual for use with programmable calculators. ICLARM Studies and Rewiev 8, 325 pp.

Peres, J.M., Gamulin-Brida, H. (1973) Biološka oceanografija: Bentos, Bentoska bionomija Jadranskog mora. Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 493 pp.

Piccinetti, C. (1967) Studio delle variazioni della produzione delle sogliole nell’Adriatico occidentale in rapporto agli attrezzi di pesca utilizzati. Note Lab. Biol. Mar. Fano, 2(4): 57-68.

Piccinetti, C., Giovanardi, O. (1984) Données biologiques sur Solea vulgaris Quensel en Adriatique. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 117-121.

Piccinetti, C., Jukić, S. (1984) Considération sur les premiers resultats de la campagne de chalutage Pipeta. FAO Fish. Rep., (290): 181-185.

Piccinetti, C., Jukić, S. (1988) Élaboration des donnés sur les ressources demersales de la haute et moyenne Adriatique. FAO Fish. Rep., 394: 172-173.

Piccinetti, C., Piccinetti Manfrin, G. (1971a) Osservazioni sull’alimentazione del merluzzo (Merluccius merluccius L.) in Alto e Medio Adriatico. Note Lab. Biol. Mar. Fano, 4(3): 41-64.

Piccinetti, C., Piccinetti Manfrin, G. (1971b) Osservazioni sulla media vertebrale di merluzzi dell’Alto e Medio Adriatico. Note Lab. Biol. Mar. Fano, 4(4): 65-84.

Piccinetti, C., Piccinetti Manfrin, G. (1994) Considerazioni sullo stato di sfruttamento delle risorse demersali (Alto e Medio Adriatico). Biol. Mar. Medit., 1(2): 77-87.

Ramšak, Andreja, Garoia, Flavio, Guarniero, Ilaria, Mannini, Piero & Tinti, Fausto (2003) Novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for the common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Molecular Ecology Notes 3 (4), 553-555.

Relini, G. (1998) I progressi della ricerca italiana sulla pesca a strascico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(2): 3-21.

Relini, G., Bertrand, J., Zamboni, A. (eds.) (1999) Synthesis of the knowledge on bottom fishery resources in Central Mediterranean (Italy and Corsica). Biol. Mar. Medit., 6 (suppl. 1).

Rijavec, L. (1975) Biologija i dinamika populacije Pagellus erythrinus (L.) u Bokokotorskom zalivu i otvorenom području južnog Jadrana. Studia Marina, 8: 3-109.

Rijavec, L., Županović, Š. (1965) A contribution to the knowledge of biology of Pagellus erythrinus L. in the middle Adriatic. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Comm. int. Explor. scient. Mer Medit., 18 (2): 195-200.

Sarano, F. (1986) Cycle ovarien du merlu, Merluccius merluccius, poisson a ponte fractionee. Rev. Trav. Pechea Marit. 48(1-2): 65-76.

Sardŕ, F. (1998a) Nephrops norvegicus (L). Comparative biology and fishery in the Mediterranean Sea. Introduction, conclusion and recommendation. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1): 5-15.

Sardŕ, F. (1998b) Comparative technical aspects of the Nephrops norvegicus (L.) fishery in the northern Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina, 62(Suppl. 1): 101-106.

Sardŕ, F., Lleonart, J., Cartes, J.E. (1998) An analysis of the population dynamics of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1): 135-143.

Scaccini, A. (1947a) Contributo alla conoscenza della biologia dei Mullidi nell’Adriatico medio occidentale. Note Lab. Biol. Mar. Fano, 1(1): 1-8

Scaccini, A. (1947b) L’accrescimento e la proporzione dei sessi nella popolazione adriatica di Mullus barbatus Rond. . Note Lab. Biol. Mar. Fano, 1(3):17-24

Scaccini, A., Furlani, F. (1965) Variations des captures de soles dans l'Adriatique occidentale en function des engins utilisés. Proc. gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 8: 385-386.

Soro, S., Piccinetti Manfrin, G. (1989) Biologia e pesca di Cefalopodi in Adriatico. Nova Thalassia, 10(1): 493-498.

Šarčević, M. (1992) Ocjena obimnosti i biološke razine dopuštenog iskorištavanja populacije škampa (Nephrops norvegicus) u Jabučkoj kotlini. Master thesis. Sveučilište u Zagrebu. 72 p.

Šoljan, T. (1948) Ribe Jadrana. Fauna i flora Jadrana, 1. Inst. Oceanogr. Ribar., Split, 437 p.

Šoljan, T. (1977) Ribarstveno-biološka ekspedicija m/b “Hvar” u otvorenom Jadranu (1948-1949). Acta Adriat. 1(1-2): 1-22.

Štirn, J., Bolje, A. (1989) Fondi pridnenih rib in drugih užitnih organizmov obalnih vod SFRJ v Tržaškem zalivu. Zaključno poročilo. Raziskovalna naloga, Droga Portorož in IBU, MBP, Ljubljana, Piran, 243 p.

Tanaka, S. (1960) Studies on the dynamics and the management of fish populations. Bull. Tokai. Reg. Fish. Res. Lab., 28: 1-200.

Tortonese, E. (1975) Fauna d'Italia. Osteichthyes. Calderni Ed. Bologna. 11: 636 p.

Ungaro, N., Marano, G., Marsan, R., Pastorelli, A.M., (1999) On the reproduction of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Southern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea): sex ratio, maturity length and potential fecundity. Crustacean Issues, 12: 553-561.

Ungaro, N., Marano, C. A., D’Uggento, A. (1998) Relazioni tra specie demersali del bacino Adriatico sud-occidentale: Analisi statistica di serie storiche. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5 (1): 196-202.

Ungaro, N., Marano, G., Marsan, R. (1996) The use of swept area method for the estimate of biomass: a first attempt relative to three demersal finfishes (hake, red mullet, four spotted megrim) in South-Western Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep. 533 (suppl.): 101-104.

Ungaro, N., Marano, G., Piccinetti, C. (1995a) Adriatic, Black Sea: the whiting doubt. Cybium, 19 (3): 311-315.

Ungaro, N., Marano, G., Vaccarella, R. (1995b) Comparazione tra aree batiali strascicabili del basso Adriatico mediante l’utilizzo dell’analisi fattoriale delle corrispondenze. Biol. Mar. Medit. 2 (2): 185-189.

Ungaro, N., Rizzi, E., Marano, G. (1993) Note sulla biologia e pesca di Merluccius merluccius (L.) nell’Adriatico pugliese. Biologia Marina, suppl., 1: 329-334.

Ungaro, N., Rizzi, E., Marzano, M.C. (1994) Utilizzo del modello di Beverton e Holt, “rendimento per recluta (Y/R)”, per la risorsa Mullus barbatus L., nell’Adriatico pugliese. Biol. Mar. Medit., 1 (1): 317-318.

Vallisneri, M., Piccinetti, C., Stagni, A.M., Colombari, A., Tinti, F. (2000) Dinamica di popolazione, accrescimento, riproduzione di Solea vulgaris (Quensel 1806) nell’alto Adriatico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 7 (1): 65-70.

Vrgoč, N. (1995) Obilježja rasta populacije oslića (Merluccius merluccius), trlje blatarice (Mullus barbatus), arbuna (Pagellus erythrinus) i škampa (Nephrops norvegicus) Jadranskog mora. Master Thesis. Sveučilište u Zagrebu, 101 pp.

Vrgoč, N. (2000) Struktura i dinamika pridnenih zajednica riba Jadranskog mora. Disertacija. Sveučilište u Zagrebu. 198 pp.

Zei, M. (1940) Pregled rezultata dosadašnjeg ribarstveno-biološkog istraživanja Oceanografskog instituta u kanalima Hrvatskog primorja. God. Oceanogr. inst. Kralj. Jugosl., 2:137-147.

Zei, M. (1949) Typical sex-reversal in Teleosts. Proc. Zool. Soc., 119 (4): 917-920.

Zei, M., Sabioncello, I. (1940) Prilog poznavanju naselja bentoskih riba u kanalima srednje Dalmacije. God. Oceanogr. inst. Kralj. Jugosl., 2:103-115.

Zei, M., Županović, Š. (1961) Contribution to the sexual cycle and sex reversal in Pagellus erythrinus (L.). Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Comm. int. Explor. scient. Mer Medit., 17 (2): 263-267.

Zore-Armanda, M. (1967) O sezonskim promjenama površinskog strujanja u Jadranu, Hidrografski godišnjak, Split, 32 pp.

Županović, Š. (1961a) Contribution ŕ la conaissance de la biologie de Merluccius merluccius L. dans l’Adriatique moyenne. FAO Proc. Gen. Fish. Coun. Medit. 6: 145-150.

Županović, Š. (1961b) Kvantitativno-kvalitativna analiza ribljih naselja kanala sednjeg Jadrana. Acta Adriat. 9(3):151 pp.

Županović, Š. (1963) Contribution a la conaissance de la biologie du Mullus barbatus (L) dans l'Adriatique moyene. Rapp. Com. int. Mer Medit., 17(2): 346-362.

Županović, Š. (1968) Study of hake (Merluccius merluccius) biology and population dynamics in the Central Adriatic. Stud. Rev. Gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 32: 24 pp.

Županović, Š., Jardas, I. (1986) A contribution to the study of biology and population dynamics of the Adriatic hake, Merluccius merluccius (L). Acta Adriat. 27(1/2): 97-146

Županović, Š., Jardas, I. (1989) Fauna i flora Jadrana. Logos Split. 526 pp.

Županović, Š., Rijavec, L. (1980) Biology and population dynamics of Pagellus erythrinus (L) in the insular zone of the middle Adriatic. Acta Adriat. 21(2): 203-226.