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FAO-AdriaMed project. © FAO AdriaMed project - Web site. [online]. Rome. Updated. [Cited ].


SPECIES LIST

Eledone cirrhosa
Eledone moschata
Loligo vulgaris
Lophius budegassa
Lophius piscatorius
Merlangius merlangus
Merluccius merluccius
Mullus barbatus
Nephrops norvegicus
Pagellus erythrinus
Parapenaeus longirostris
Sepia officinalis
Solea vulgaris

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798)

SPECIES DESCRIPTION

DISTRIBUTION

BIOLOGICAL DATA

EVALUATION AND EXPLOITATION

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

GENETICS

LEGISLATION

REFERENCES

Class:  Cephalopoda
Order:  Teuthida
Family:  Loliginidae
English name:  European squid
   
Local Name: 

SQ:

 Kallamare

HR:

 Obična lignja

IT:

 Calamaro comune

SR:

 Lignja

SL:

 Ligenj

SPECIES DESCRIPTION

The body of the European squid is long, moderately slender and cylindrical. The fins are rhomboid and their length is two thirds of the mantle length. The posterior border is slightly concave. The head is relatively small with big eyes that are covered with a transparent membrane. There are ten arms around the mouth. Eight of them are relatively short, and two are long (tentacles) and are used to catch prey. The fourth left arm of males is a hectocotylus.

The colour of Loligo vulgaris is greyish-transparent or reddish, depending on expansion of the pigmented cells in the skin. On the mantle of the adult males there are small chromatophores. In the internal dorsal side of the mantle there is a supporting structure that is called gladius (Fisher et al., 1987; Jardas, 1996; Relini et al., 1999).

DISTRIBUTION

World:
Loligo vulgaris can be found throughout the Mediterranean Sea and in the eastern Atlantic Ocean from the North Sea to the Gulf of Guinea (Jardas, 1996; Relini et al., 1999).

Adriatic Sea:
Grubišić (1982) showed that this species is distributed throughout the Adriatic Sea up to depths of 400 m. It inhabits all strata, but, during the spawning period, it migrates into shallower regions. Generally, European squid are most frequent at depths between 40 and 150 m. Gamulin-Brida and Ilijanić (1972) reported that this species lives in coastal regions, most often between 50 and 100 m deep. Based on research in the south Adriatic, Mandić, 1984 found that European squid resided in the coastal region up to a depth of 100 m. Nevertheless, it can be found up to 150 m, but rarely and in small quantities. In the Pomo/Jabuka Pit it was fished at all stations (Županović and Jardas, 1989). The species is present in the entire Adriatic. It is most frequent up to depths of 100 m (Mandić and Stjepčević, 1981; Flamigni and Giovanardi, 1984;
Soro and Piccinetti Manfrin, 1989; Županović and Jardas, 1989; Pastorelli et al., 1995; Casali et al., 1998; Krstulović Šifner, 2000).

Habitat:
It is a neritic, semi-demersal species, known for distinct horizontal and vertical migrations, depending on the environment. In the Adriatic, L. vulgaris occurs above different types of sea sediments; from sandy through sandy-muddy, to the muddy bottoms Gamulin-Brida and Ilijanić 1972; Casali et al., 1998).

BIOLOGICAL DATA

Size:
European squid can grow up to 30 to 40 cm of the mantle length, but their usual size is 15 to 25 cm. The males are generally bigger than the females and they grow faster (Relini et al., 1999).

Length-weight relationship:
The growth shows negative allometry, as can be seen from the length-weight relation data obtained by different authors.

Total Length (TL, cm) – weight (g) relationship.

Author Sex a b

Flamigni and Giovanardi, 1984

M+F 0.4703 2.788

Marano, 1993

M+F 0.113 2.511

Krstulović Šifner, 2000

M 0.008 2.3501
F 0.005 2.4524
M+F 0.05 2.4181

Flamigni and Giovanardi, 1984 and Krstulović Šifner, 2000 found that males dominate in the population during springtime. This can be a consequence of the female after-spawning mass mortality. However, the sampling methods used and different behaviour patterns of males and females can also influence sex ratio in the samples (Krstulović Šifner, 2000).

Reproduction:
Although, L. vulgaris reproduce all year long in the Adriatic, it is most intensive in the winter-spring period (Flamigni and Giovanardi, 1984;
Soro and Piccinetti Manfrin, 1989; Krstulović Šifner, 2000). Mantle length at the first sexual maturity is shown in the table. After spawning most individuals die, thus, typical European squid live for only one year and do not regenerate gonads and reproduce again. The average number of oocytes in females is about 6000. They are each about 1,6 mm long. A weak positive correlation between mantle length and number of eggs is found. The number of spermatophores in males is from 15 to 310 and their length from 7,5 to 14 mm (Krstulović Šifner, 2000).

Length at the first sexual maturity:

Mantle Length (ML, cm) at the first sexual maturity.

Author Sex

ML, cm

Flamigni and Giovanardi, 1984

M 11.8
F 15.8

Mandić, 1984

M 11.0-12.0
F 12.0-13.0

Soro and Piccinetti Manfrin, 1989

M 14.0-15.0
F 15.0-16.0

Krstulović Šifner, 2000

M 12.0
F 15.0-16.0

Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF).
Parameters of the Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF).

Author

Sex L(cm) K(yr-1) t0(yr)

Krstulović Šifner, 2000

M+F 238.02 1.74 0.06

Feeding behaviour:
The European squid feeds on fish, crustaceans and cephalopods, but fish is the major, sometimes the only, component. In some areas, polychaetes and chaetognaths are prey as well. Cannibalism was also observed (Relini et al., 1999).

EVALUATION AND EXPLOITATION

During the expedition MEDITS (996-1998) in the central and northern Adriatic, the average value of the catch for the entire area studied, was from 0,50 to 0,81 kg/km2. The highest catch was recorded in the 50 m stratum (Krstulović Šifner, 2000).

CPUE:
An analysis of the commercial landings at the Split fish market from 1995-1999 showed marked seasonality of the catch, with peaks in the winter months (
Krstulović Šifner, 2000). In the period from 1982 to 1991, the CPUE from the “Pipeta” expedition values in the central and northern Adriatic, showed marked fluctuations without a clear trend (Piccinetti and Piccinetti Manfrin, 1994).

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

Gear:
Loligo vulgaris has a considerable commercial value. The species is caught in multispecies trawl fishing throughout the year and, seasonally, in small scale and recreational fishing with a variety of gear (
Relini et al., 1999).

Fisheries Statistics:

The total annual catch of the species in the Adriatic Sea (GFCM) is about 1.000 to 1.500 tonnes. It shows wide variations and this is probably linked to the production cycle that is typical for many cephalopods (Mannini and Massa, 2000).


Lologo spp. capture fishery production (Adriatic Sea*). Data: FAO-FISHSTAT (GFCM (Mediterranean and Black Sea) capture production 1970-2003 (Release date: May 2005) Regional dataset available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/stat/windows/fishplus/gfcm.zip.

*According to GFCM definition of statistical sub-areas the Adriatic Sea falls within the area 2.1, thus including only the Northern and Central basins, while the Southern Adriatic basin and consequently the coast of South-eastern Italy and of Albania are included in the Ionian Sea (area 2.2). In order to have as comprehensive a picture as possible of all Adriatic Sea fishery production, Albanian data originally classified as from the Ionian Sea have been included in the Adriatic data set used. Unfortunately, this was not feasible for South-western Italy (Apulia Region).

GENETICS

 

Species

Relevant genetic results

Population biology and ecology issues

Genetic diversity Genetic differentiation
Loligo vulgaris

Number of alleles: 5-21 (mean 13.3) Heterozigosity. 53% - 94% (mean 68%)
HWE fitting: 77.5%
The Adriatic samples stock showed high genetic variability and appear to be in equilibrium.

Fixation indices among Adriatic samples were low and not significant
The Adriatic samples resulted highly homogeneous for genetic allele structure,

The high genetic diversity and homogeneity of Adriatic stock suggested the occurrence of a single highly panmictic population unit probably of large dimension.
The continental slope present in the southern part of Adriatic Sea does not act as a barrier against the migration for this highly mobile species.

 

 

Scientific name

Common name

Project framework

Sampling (Survey) Development of genetic marker (type & number of markers) Genetic structure (analysed samples, geographic areas) Population units in the Adriatic shared stock Reference associated

Loligo vulgaris

European squid IPUAS, FAO-AdriaMed
(MEDITS 2001)

(microsatellites, 6 optimised loci)

(4; NA,MA,SA)

Single panmictic unit
Final report of AdriaMed IPUAS research programme;
Guarniero et al. 2003; Garoia et al. 2004a.

LEGISLATION

Minimum size:

Species (local or common name)

Species (scientfic name)

Minimum size in cm or
minimum weight in kg

ALB:
It is strictly prohibited to fish and sell any aquatic species less than the minimum regulatory size as set out in Article 48.1 of Fisheries Regulations No.1 of 1997.

Kallamare

Loligo spp.

25cm

CRO:
n.a.

Obična lignja

-

-

ITA:
n.a.

Calamaro comune

-

-

SCG:
n.a.

Lignja

-

-

SLO:
n.a.

Ligeni

-

-

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