Scientific Cooperation to Support Responsible Fisheries in the Adriatic Sea


Eledone cirrhosa
Eledone moschata
Loligo vulgaris
Lophius budegassa
Lophius piscatorius
Merlangius merlangus
Merluccius merluccius
Mullus barbatus
Nephrops norvegicus
Pagellus erythrinus
Parapenaeus longirostris
Sepia officinalis
Solea vulgaris











Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758)









Class:  Decapoda
Order:  Malacostraca
Family:  Homaridae
English name:  Norway lobster
Local Name: 











Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Original Scientific Illustrations Archive


Norway lobster is a medium to large sized crustacean decapod with well-calcified teguments, very pronounced rostrum, carapace and chelae, reduced pedunculated eyes and non-imbricated abdominal pleurae (Relini et al., 1999).

The body is long and more or less flat laterally. There are three to four bones on the dorsal side and one to two on the ventral side of cephalothorax. The abdomen is long and ends with a fan-shaped telson that enables the lobster to swim. However, when moving, Nephrops norvegicus walks more than it swims (Fisher et al., 1987; Relini et al., 1999).

The first pair of cephalic appendices has composite eyes, each with a mobile peduncule. The first pair of antennae is short and forked. Each of the second pair is long and simple. The telson is long, with two pronounced bones at its apex. The first pair of legs is well developed with strong chelae. The second and third are thinner and have chelae as well (Relini et al., 1999).

Norway lobster is orange coloured, with orange-red bands on chelae and on the anterior part of the cephalothorax.


The species is distributed in the eastern Atlantic, from Morocco to Norway and Iceland, and in the Mediterranean (Fisher et al., 1987 and Relini et al., 1999).

Adriatic Sea:
The species was recorded at depths from about 30 meters in the northern Adriatic Sea to 400 meters in the southern part of the Sea (Karlovac, 1953; Froglia and Gramitto, 1988; Vrgoč, 1995; Marano et al., 1998a). In the northern part of the open Adriatic it can be found off Ancona. The most dense population is in the Pomo/Jabuka Pit region. There are rich fishing grounds in the Velebit Channel, Kvarner and Kvarnerić region along the Croatian coast (Karlovac, 1953; Crnković, 1964, Crnković, 1965). In the southern Adriatic, along the western (Italian) and eastern (Albanian) coasts, the settlements are not so dense (Karlovac, 1953; Marano et al., 1998a).

Because the range of this species in the Adriatic is a continuous one, particular Norway lobster settlements cannot be regarded as isolated (Karlovac, 1953). Nevertheless, some differences do exist, primarily in length frequencies among the settlements around Ancona and the Pomo/Jabuka Pit (Froglia and Gramitto, 1981, Froglia and Gramitto, 1988, IMBC et al., 1994), as well as among the settlements in the northern Adriatic channels and the Pomo/Jabuka Pit (Karlovac, 1953; Crnković, 1964, Crnković, 1965, Crnković, 1970; Jukić, 1974; Županović and Jardas, 1989). Froglia and Gramitto (1981) discussed these differences as the consequence of the difference in ecological factors that dramatically depress growth of N. norvegicus and other benthic decapods in the Pomo/Jabuka Pit. Similarly, Mantovani and Scali (1992), using genetic analysis, found that differences between Norway lobster off Ancona and the Pomo/Jabuka Pit did not surpass those at the population level. The differences were only a consequence of different environments.

N. norvegicus can be considered a “mud-loving” species, not restricted to a particular biocenosis or to a biocenotical zone (Froglia and Gramitto, 1981). This is certainly related to its habit of digging burrows for shelter (Crnković, 1965; Froglia 1972; IMBC et al., 1994).


Nephrops norvegicus is a species with separate sexes. Males are, on an average, larger than females. Although Fisher et al. (1987) stated that its maximal total length is 24 cm, larger specimens have been caught, primarily in the northern Adriatic. Crnković (1965), for example, found specimens up to 26,5 cm TL in northern Adriatic channels.

Length-weight relationship:
Because two different measures are used in fishery and biological research, total body length (TL) and carapace length (CL), the relationship between them is presented in the table, and the carapace length-weight relationship is given in the table.

Total Length (TL, mm)-Carapace Length (CL, mm) relationship.

Author Area Sex a b

Froglia and Gramitto, 1981

Pomo/Jabuka Pit M -1.420 3.337
F -2.058 3.397
off Ancona M 3.549 3.159
F 2.019 2.254

Froglia and Gramitto, 1988

Pomo/Jabuka Pit M -1.880 3.355
F -2.541 3.419
off Ancona M 2.729 3.179
F 1.229 3.273

Cetinić et al., 1999

Velebit Channel M+F -1.0035 3.5507

Total Length (TL, mm)-Carapace Length (CL, mm) relationship.

Author Area Sex a b

Froglia and Gramitto, 1981

Pomo/Jabuka Pit M 0.000246 3.28
F 0.000489 3.07
off Ancona M 0.000263 3.27
F 0.0049 3.09

Šarčević, 1992 (TL)

Pomo/Jabuka Pit M+F 0.0098 3.217

Marano, 1993

SW Adriatic M+F 0.00004 3.164

Marano, 1996

SW Adriatic M+F 0.0005 3.091


- M+F 0.00103 2.805

Marano et al., 1998a

SW Adriatic M+F 0.00064 3.036

Marano et al., 1998a

SW Adriatic Spring M 0.0006 3.059
F 0.0004 3.169
Autumn M 0.0005 3.079
F 0.0005 3.089

Sardŕ et al., 1998

off Ancona F 0.00043
M 0.00028

The growth of Norway lobster, as in other crustaceans, is a discontinuous process with a succession of molts separated by the intermolt periods. During each molt, the old exoskeleton is shed and the animal grows very quickly before the new exoskeleton hardens. A well-defined molting periodicity was not found among juveniles, they seem to molt all year round. There is a molt synchronism in the adult population, it could be generally said that, in the Mediterranean, the females have one molting period a year (December-March), right after hatching the eggs (Gramitto, 1998).

The molting period of grown males is in late summer and autumn (August-October) (Gramitto, 1998). In the Adriatic, adult males have a molt peak between June and September. The frequency of gastroliths is always very low in adult females, little is known about their molt cycle, except that adult females do not molt between August and January, when they carry eggs externally (Gramitto, 1998).

In the Adriatic, N. norvegicus spawns once a year (Froglia and Gramitto, 1981). The proportion of females with mature ovaries peaks in spring or at the beginning of summer (Froglia and Gramitto, 1981;
Orsi Relini et al., 1998). Berried females were found in October and November (Orsi Relini et al., 1998), but some specimens can be present up to late spring (Froglia and Gramitto, 1981). According to Karlovac (1953), Norway lobster larvae are present in the Adriatic plankton in late winter, from January to April (Relini et al., 1999).

The sex ratio changes through the year. The proportion of females in the catch is lower when they carry external eggs because they are less active and more often hide in burrows. On the other hand, this proportion increases and is higher in the mating period (Crnković, 1965, Jukić, 1971; Froglia and Gramitto, 1981; Ungaro et al., 1999).

Data about the length at first sexual maturity at different localities are shown in the table. At the first maturity, the individuals are two (Froglia and Gramitto, 1981) or three years old (Orsi Relini et al., 1998).

Length at the first sexual maturity:

Carapage Length (CL, mm) at the first sexual maturity:

Author Area

(CL, mm)

CL (mm)
smallest ovigereous

Karlovac, 1953

Northern Adriatic 95-100 (TL) 17-17.5

Froglia and Gramitto, 1979

off Ancona 32.5 17.0
Pomo/Jabuka Pit 25.9 An

Gramitto and Froglia, 1980

off Ancona 32 16-17
Pomo/Jabuka Pit 26 nc

Froglia and Gramitto, 1981

off Ancona 105 (TL) 16-17
Pomo/Jabuka Pit 85 (TL) nc

IMBC et al., 1994

off Ancona 30 17-18
Pomo/Jabuka Pit 26 nc
NW Ancona 31.5 nc

Marano et al., 1998a

SW Adriatic 25   16

Orsi Relini et al., 1998

off Ancona 30 17-18

Cetinić et al., 1999

Velebit Channel 35   16

Ungaro et al., 1999

SW Adriatic 27.5 17-18

The relation between length of carapace and number of eggs in females in the Adriatic Sea, as found by different authors, is presented in the table. It can be seen that the number of eggs is correlated with the length (CL): i.e. bigger animals lay proportionally more eggs (Froglia and Gramitto, 1979). The relationship between the length of carapace and number of eggs is almost the same in different parts of the Adriatic (Pomo/Jabuka Pit and off Ancona), even though the size of mature females is quite different (Froglia and Gramitto, 1979). Ungaro et al. (1999) found smaller values in the southern Adriatic.

The number of eggs hatched is about one third of the numbers of oocytes (Froglia and Gramitto, 1981). Orsi Relini et al. (1998) found that, in the Adriatic, fecundity was about double that for embryos close to hatching, therefore meaning that the loss of embryos is about 50%.

Ratio between Carapace Length (CL, mm) and number of eggs.

Author Area Ratio

Froglia and Gramitto, 1979, 1981

NW Adriatic N=0.0575*CL2.942

Šarčević, 1992

Pomo/Jabuka Pit N=-6980.6+448.96*CL

Orsi Relini et al., 1998

NW N=-2862.5+120.8*CL

Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF).
There are some differences in growth parameters between males and females. Males grow larger than females. Differences in growth dynamics among settlements in different parts of the Adriatic can also be observed. They are the result of differences in ecological conditions. However, the methods used in calculating the parameters might influence on the growth parameter estimates.

Parameters of the Von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF).


Area Method Sex L(mm) K(yr-1) t0(yr) Φ’

Froglia and Gramitto, 1988

M+F NORMSEP M 226* 0.036** -1.70** 10.00
F 230* 0.044** 1.48** 10.24
Pomo/Jabuka Pit M 200* 0.027** -1.91** 9.47
F 140* 0.044** -0.27** 9.25

Šarčević, 1992

Pomo/Jabuka Pit BHATTACH M+F 215* 0.215 -0.23 9.20

IMBC et al., 1994

Ancona MULTIFAN M 56.6 0.426 - 7.22
F - - - -
MIX M 63.5 0.327 -0.13 7.18
F 55.4 0.361 -0.18 7.01
NW Ancona MIX M 82.5 0.325 0.28 7.70
F 59.5 0.450 0.06 7.37
Pomo/Jabuka Pit MULTIFAN M 43.4 0.382 - 6.58
F 43.2 0.437 - 6.70
MIX M 55.9 0.229 -0.56 6.57
F 36.0 0.498 -0.27 6.47

Vrgoč, 1995

Open Adriatic Sea BHATTACH M 227* 0.324 -0.29 9.72
F 179* 0.397 -0.03 9.45

Marano et al., 1998a

SW Adriatic BHATTACH M+F 65.0 0.14 - 6.38
M 67.3 0.14 - 6.45
Surf. and Sheper M+F 79.6 0.21 - 7.19
M 77.6 0.17 - 6.93

Marano et al., 1998a

off Ancona Gauss - Newton M 71.4 0.11 -1.18 6.33
F 68.0 0.14 -0.21 6.47
FISHPARM M 83.3 0.11 -1.24 6.64
F 68.5 0.14 -1.02 6.49

Sardŕ et al., 1998

off Ancona - M 81.5 0.11 -0.95 6.59
F 67.0 0.14 -0.88 6.44

* L of total lenght
** K/month, to/month

Feeding behaviour:
Norway lobster feed mainly on other decapod crustaceans and, to a lesser extent, on different crustaceans (euphausids and peracarids) and fish. Parts of carapace, shells and gastropoda scales, vertebra and fish otoliths and similar fragments were found in N. norvegicus stomachs (Cristo and Cartes, 1998). These surveys confirmed that the dominant prey-species in the alimentation were those usually found in demersal communities where Norway lobster lives. It was also determined that stomach was least full in summer, that is, in the period when gonads grow most intensively and occupy a great volume of the body cavity (Cristo and Cartes, 1998).


In the Adriatic the catch of Norway lobster fluctuates significantly in different times of day and night (circadian fluctuation), and during the year (seasonal fluctuation) (Crnković, 1970; Jukić, 1971, Froglia 1972; Froglia and Gramitto, 1981; Marano et al., 1998a; Županović and Jardas, 1989; Relini et al., 1999). Generally, the catch is highest at sunrise and sunset. This most probably due to the behaviour of this species; it spends most of its life buried in burrows in the sea sediment and goes out only in search for food before dawn and at dusk (Froglia 1972; Froglia and Gramitto, 1981). This kind of behaviour is more obvious in younger specimens and ovigerous females. As a result, different parts of the population are accessible to fishing gear at different times of day. Seasonal fluctuations exist for the same reason; the catch is biggest in spring, when the sex ratio is in favour of females (Froglia 1972; IMBC et al., 1994), in winter the catch is at a minimum. (IMBC et al., 1994; Marrs et al., 2000.)

Biomass/Abundance Indexes:
Šarčević (1992) estimated the N. norvegicus standing stock size in the Pomo/Jabuka Pit at 11810 tonnes. He also calculated MSY in the fishing area of Blitvenica (the eastern part of the Jabuka Pit) to be 41 tonnes annually with fopt = 800 fishing days

In researching the Norway lobster population density with underwater television (UWTV), IMBC et al. (1994) and Froglia et al. (1997) found that the burrow density in the Pomo/Jabuka Pit was 0,6566 - 0,7185 m-2, and 0,1067 - 0,6255 m-2 off Ancona. The frequency of occupancy of the burrow is not known, but it is considered to be high, because burrow openings collapse quickly if they are not continuously repaired.

The following biomass (tonnes) of N. norvegicus at various burrows occupancy levels were calculated:


Ancona inshore

Ancona offshore














The mortality rate estimates of the N. norvegicus population in the Adriatic are shown in the table. It can be seen that females are exposed to higher mortality than males.
Froglia and Gramitto (1988) explained this with the fishing which is most intensive in late spring and summer, the mating period, when females are dominant in the population.

Although analyses of the stomach contents of demersal bony and cartiligineous fish did not reveal N. norvegicus preys in any significant quantity, it seems that fishing mortality is the main component of overall mortality after recruitment to the seabed when the species assumes benthic life (Froglia and Gramitto, 1988).

Mortality rate coefficients for Norway lobster in the Adriatic.

Author Area M(yr-1)



Froglia and Gramitto, 1988

off Ancona - - males 0.9 - 1.6
females 0.9 - 2.5
Pomo/Jabuka Pit - - males 1.0 - 1.1
females 1.1 - 1.4

Marano et al., 1998a

Southern Adriatic


0,39 Fmax=0.22

0.64 (0.57-0.72)

Marrs et al., 2000

off Ancona 0.2 males 0.37 - 0.52
females 0.57 - 0.81
males 0.67 - 0.82
females 0.84 - 1.07
0.4 males 0.22 - 0.34
females 0.38 - 0.54
males 0.72 - 0.84
females 0.84 - 0.99


In the Adriatic Sea, the N. norvegicus is caught primarily with two types of gear: the majority of the catch is by bottom trawl nets and the rest with traps (mainly in channel areas of the northern Adriatic).

Fisheries Statistics:
Adriatic Sea landing of Norway lobster increased from the 1980s until the first half of the 1990s when a marked negative trend was established (Mannini and Massa, 2000.

Norway lobster ranks first by value and second by weight among the crustacean resources exploited in the Adriatic Sea. For the Adriatic (Italy and Croatia), total landings are approximately 2000 tonnes per year (Marrs et al., 2000). Adriatic trawling grounds are considered to be fully exploited or even overexploited (Froglia and Gramitto, 1982; IMBC et al., 1994; Sardŕ, 1998a, Sardŕ, 1998b).

Nephrops norvegicus capture fishery production (Adriatic Sea*). Data: FAO-FISHSTAT (GFCM (Mediterranean and Black Sea) capture production 1970-2003 (Release date: May 2005) Regional dataset available at

*According to GFCM definition of statistical sub-areas the Adriatic Sea falls within the area 2.1, thus including only the Northern and Central basins, while the Southern Adriatic basin and consequently the coast of South-eastern Italy and of Albania are included in the Ionian Sea (area 2.2). In order to have as comprehensive a picture as possible of all Adriatic Sea fishery production, Albanian data originally classified as from the Ionian Sea have been included in the Adriatic data set used. Unfortunately, this was not feasible for South-western Italy (Apulia Region).

Data on bottom trawl selectivity for Norway lobster in the Adriatic are shown in the table.


Mesh size stretched (mm)

L50% (cm)

SF SR  L25%-L75%
Jukić, 1974 41.56 9.2 1.5 6.8–8.2
52.83 4.3 0.9 22
62.60 5.2 0.9 22
Jukić and Piccinetti, 1987 41 5.7 1.2 -
55 6.5 1.2 -
65 10.3 1.2 -
Jukić and Piccinetti, 1988 40 5.7 TL 1.2 -
Froglia and Gramitto, 1988 40 (off Ancona) 10 TL - -
40 (Pomo/Jabuka Pit) 6 TL - -
Vrgoč, 1995 40 (Hvar) 8.2 TL - 7.1 - 9.2
Mytilineou et al., 1998b
Mesh size “knot to knot”
16 fully unselective
20 17.83 0.44 15.32 - 20.34
24 20.06 0.43 16.77 - 23.35
32 20.53 0.40 16.71 - 24.35
GMS-GRUND, 1998 40 11.1 TL 0.3 -
66 24.4 TL 0.4 -
Marano et al., 1998a 36 15 0.38 -



Scientific name

Common name

Project framework

Sampling (Survey) Development of genetic marker (type & number of markers) Genetic structure (analysed samples, geographic areas) Population units in the Adriatic shared stock Reference associated

Nephrops norvegicus

Norway lobster GenPopAdr, MiPAF
(MEDITS 2001)

(microsatellites, 5 optimised loci)

(4; NA,MA,SA)

Single panmictic unit
Final report of GenPopAdr project , MiPAF
Guarniero, 2004.


Minimum size:

Species (local or common name)

Species (scientific name)

Minimum size in cm or
minimum weight in kg

It is strictly prohibited to fish and sell any aquatic species less than the minimum regulatory size as set out in Article 48.1 of Fisheries Regulations No.1 of 1997.


Nephrops norvegicus

30 cm

The Order of 1998 (145/98) and amended by the Order 101/02 on the Protection of Fish and Other Marine Organisms was adopted to determine the minimum sizes of certain species of fish.


Nephrops norvegicus

7 cm

The self-executing rules of Reg. EC 1626/1994 establish the minimum size to protect juveniles


Nephrops norvegicus

20 mm Carapage length
70 mm Total lenght

The minimum size is laid down as follows: 2. Decree on prohibition of capture and trade in fish juveniles, undersized fish and other marine organisms no. 10/2004.


Nephrops norvegicus

10 cm



Nephrops norvegicus


Fishing gear:

Type of fishing gear

Allowed quantities per license in pieces or length (cm)

Minimum Mesh size in mm or number of hooks 

Time of use (open season)

Area of use








Numerous regulations have been adopted in Croatia to regulate fishing gears’ technical characteristics and their use with regard to commercial, small-scale and sport fishing. An Ordinance of 1996 on commercial fishing (46/96) prescribes, according to the type of license granted to a vessel, the quantities and types of gear that can be carried on board and used from that vessel. Mesh sizes of nets and other fishing gears as well as their area and time of use have also been determined in Regulations on Commercial Fishing of 2000 (83/2000) and are summarized in Table below.

Traps for Norwegian lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) and shrimps (Squilla mantis)


20 mm

All year























REFERENCES click to enlarge

Abella, A.J., Serena, F. (1998) Stato di sfruttamento del nasello nei compartimenti di pesca di Livorno e Viareggio. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(2): 136-150.

AdriaMed. (2000) Priority topics related to shared demersal fishery resources of the Adriatic Sea. Report of the first meeting of the AdriaMed Working Group on shared demersal resources. FAO-MiPAF Scientific Cooperation to Support Responsible Fisheries in the Adriatic Sea. GCP/RER/010/ITA/TD-02: 21 pp.

Alegria Hernandez, V., Granić, V., Jukić, S. (1982) The protection of the hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) in the Adriatic Sea by regulation of the level of exploitation. Acta Adriat., 23 (1/2): 431-440.

Alegria Hernandez, V., Jukić, S. (1990) Some aspects of biology and population dynamics of Hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Adriatic Sea. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer. Medit., 32 (1): 265.

Alegria Hernandez, V., Jukić, S. (1992) Abundance dynamics of the hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) from the middle Adriatic Sea. Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., Monaco, n. special 11: 161pp.

Alfirević, S., Crnković, D., Gamulin Brida, H. (1969) Problem racionalne eksploatacije škampa (Nephrops norvegicus L.). Thalassia Jugosl., 5: 5-12.

Ardizzone, G.D. (1998) Un tentativo di valutazione delle condizioni di Merluccius merluccius e Mullus barbatus nei mari italiani. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(2): 151-168.

Arneri, E. (1996) Fisheries resources assessment and management in Adriatic and Ionian Seas. FAO Fish. Rep., 533: 7-20.

Arneri, E., Jukić, S. (1986) Some preliminary observations on the biology and dynamics of Mullus barbatus in the Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep., 345: 79-86.

Bello, G., Marano, G., Rizzi., Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1986) Preliminary survey on the Adriatic hake, Merluccius merluccius, within the Demersal Resources Assessment Programme, Spring 1985 survey. FAO Fish. Rep., 345: 200-204.

Bertrand, J. (1995) Campagnes internationales de chalutage demersal en Mediteranee (MEDITS). Campagne 1994. Manuel des protocoles. Rapp. de Contract EC-IFREMER-IEO-SIBM-NCMR (MED93: 020-018 006004): 27 pp.

Bertrand, J., Gil de Sola, L., Papaconstatinou, C., Relini, G. and Souplet, A. (1997) An international bottom trawl survey in the Mediterranean: the MEDITS programme. ICES CM 1997-03: 16 pp.

Beverton, R.J.H. and S.J. Holt (1956) A rewiev of methods for estimating martality rates in expoited fish populations, with special references to sources of bias in catch sampling. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. CIEM, 140: 67-83.

Bini, G. (1968-70) Atlante dei pesci delle coste italiane. 1-10. Mondo Sommerso Roma.

Bolje, A. (1992) Kvantitativna i kvalitativna analiza kočarskih naselja u tršćanskom zaljevu. Master thesis. Sveučilište u Zagrebu., 64 pp.

Bombace, G. (1972) Considerazioni sulla distribuzione delle populazioni di livelo batiale con particolare riferimento quelle bentoniche. Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca. 1(4): 65-82.

Bombace, G., Cingolani, N. (1986) Résultats pratique du programme de recherche “Étude de faisabilité pour un system d’echantillonnage des statistiques de pęche” (programme PESTAT). FAO Fish. Rep., 345: 57-59.

Bombace, G., Cingolani, N. (1988) Distribution de l’effort de pęches dans les pęcheries des mers italiennes, densité (CV/n mi2) et CPUE (KG/CV) pour les différents métiers de pęche. In: Caddy, J.F. and Savini, M. (eds). Report of the fifth technical Consultation of the General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean on stock assessment in the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. Bari, Italy, 1-5 june 1987. FAO Fish. Rep., 394: 234-244.

Bougis, P., Mužinić, R. (1958) Sur la croissance de Mullus barbatus (L.) dans les eaux de Split. Acta Adriat., 8(9):14 pp.

Buljan, M., Zore-Armanda, M. (1971) Osnovi oceanografije i pomorske meteorologije. Institut za oceanografiju i ribarstvo, Split, 424 p.

Caddy, J.F. (1993) Some future perspectives for assessment and management of Mediterranean fisheries. Scientia Marina, 57(2-3): 121-130.

Casali, G. Manfrin Piccinetti, S. Soro, (1998) Distribuzione di cefalopodi in Alto e Medio Adriatico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(2): 307-318.

Cetinić, P., (Coordinator). (1999) Istraživanje kompetitivnih odnosa između ribolova pridnenim povlačnom povlačnom mrežom (koćom), vršama za lov škampa i jednostrukim mrežema stajačicama za lov oslića u velebitskom kanalu, s posebnim osvrtom na populaciju škampa i oslića. IOF, Split, 53 pp.

Coppola, S.R., Cingolani, N. (1992) Assessment of catch and effort of Italian fleet by fishing areas based on “PESTAT” data. FAO Fish. Rep., 468: 36-68.

Cristo, M., Cartes, J.E. (1998) A comparative study of the feeding ecology of Nephrops norvegicus (L) in the bathyal Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1), 81-90.

Crnković, D. (1959) Contribution to the study of economically valuable benthonic species of the channels of the north-eastern Adriatic. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Explor. scient. Mer Medit., 5: 355-363.

Crnković, D. (1964) Utjecaj koćarenja na bentoska naselja u kanalskom području sjeveroistočnog Jadrana. 11(5): 47-57.

Crnković, D. (1965) Ispitivanje ekologije i mogućnosti racionalnog unaprijeđenja eksploatacije raka Nephrops norvegicus (L) u kanalskom području sjeveroistočnog Jadrana. Disertacija, PMF Sveučilišta u Zagrebu.

Crnković, D. (1970) Prilog biološkoj i ekonomskoj problematici koćarenja u kanalskom području sjeveroistočnog Jadrana. Thalassia Jugosl., 6: 5-90.

D'Ancona, U. (1949) Il differenziamento della gonade e l'inversione sessuale degli Sparidi. Arch. Oceanogr. Limnol., 6(2/3): 97-139.

De Zio V., Ungaro, N., Vlora, A., Strippoli, G. (1998) Lo stock di nasello del basso Adriatico: Struttura demografica e rendimenti di pesca della frazione catturata con palangaro di fondo. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5 (2): 128-135.
EC XIV/298/96-EN (1996) Report of the Group of independent Experts to Advise the European Commission on the Fourth Generation of Multi-annual Guidance Programmes.

Fabi, G. (2001) Sepia officinalis: impact of three set of fishing techniques in the Adriatic and the Ligurian Sea. Study contract No. 98/069. IRPEM-C.I.B.M. 119 pp.

Ferretti, M., Froglia, C. (1975) Results of selectivity experiments, made with different trawls, on more important Adriatic demersal fish. Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca., 2(1): 3-16.

Fiorentini, L., Dremiere, P.Y. (1999) ESMED Efficacy and selectivity of trawl used for the MEDITS project. Study Proposal, No. 95/29:118 pp.

Fisher, W., Schneider, M., Bauchot, M.L. (eds.) (1987) Fishes FAO d’identification des espčces pour les besoins de la pęche. Mediterranée et mer Noire. Vol. I – II., Rome, FAO. 1-2: 760 p.

Flamigni, C. (1983) Preliminary utilization of trawl surwey data for hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) population dynamics in the Adriatic Sea. FAO Rapp. Pechs / FAO Fish.Rep., (290): 109-115.

Flamigni, C., Giovanardi, O. (1984) Biological data, collected during the Pipeta expeditions, on the squid Loligo vulgaris Lam. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 143-146.

Fonda Umani, S., Franco, P., Ghirardelli, E., Malej, A. (1990) Outline of oceanography and phytoplankton of the Adriatic Sea. 'The Adriatic Sea': Papers presented at the 25th European marine Biology Symposium, University of Ferrara: 25-43.

Frattini, C., Casali, P. (1998) Distribuzione di Gadiformi in Alto e Medio Adriatico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(2): 82-98.

Frattini, C., Paolini, M. (1995) Ruolo delle acque profonde quale nursery per Merluccius merluccius (L.). Biol. Mar. Medit., 2(2): 281-286.

Froglia, C. (1972) Osservazioni sulle variazioni di cattura dello scampo, Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in riferimento all’etologia ed alla biologia della specie. Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca., 1(4): 83-100.

Froglia, C. (1973) Osservazioni sull’alimentazione del merluzzo (Merluccius merluccius L.) del medio Adriatico. Atti V. Congr. Naz.Coc. It. Biol. Mar., Ed. Salentina nardo, 327-341.

Froglia, C. (1982) Contribution to the knowledge of the biology of Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas) (Decapoda, Penaeoidea). Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca., 3(2-5): 163-168.

Froglia, C. (1988) Food preferences of juvenile Red mullet Mullus barbatus in Western Adriatic nursery ground (Osteichthyes: Mullidae) Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 31(2): 263.

Froglia, C., Atkinson, R.J., Tuck, I.D., Arneri, E. (1997) Underwater television survey, a tool to estimate Nephrops stock biomass on the Adriatic trawling grounds. In: Tisuću godina prvog spomena ribarstva u Hrvata. Finka B. (Ed.), HAZU, Zagreb, 657-667.

Froglia, C., Galli, B. (1970) Selettivitŕ e capacitŕ di cattura di una rete a strascico di tipo italiano su popolazioni di Mullus barbatus L. Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca, Ancona, 1(1): 1-20.

Froglia, C., Giannetti, G. (1985) Growth of common sole Solea vulgaris Quensel in the Adriatic Sea. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 29 (8): 91-93.

Froglia, C., Giannetti, G. (1986) Remarks on rings formation in otoliths of Solea vulgaris and other flatfishes from the Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep., 345: 121-122.

Froglia, C., Gramitto, M. E. (1981) Summary of biological parameters on the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), in the Adriatic. FAO Fish. Rep., (253): 165 – 178.

Froglia, C., Gramitto, M.E. (1979) An estimate of the fecundity of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) in the Adriatic Sea. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 25/26 (4): 227-229.

Froglia, C., Gramitto, M.E. (1982) Effetti della crisi di ossigeno del 1977 sulla pesca degli scampi in Adriatico. Bollettino dei Musei e degli Istituti Biologici dell’ Universitŕ di Genoa, 50 (Suppl.): 195-201.

Froglia, C., Gramitto, M.E. (1986) Diurnal changes in fishery resources catchabillity by bottom trawl in the Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep., 345: 111-118.

Froglia, C., Gramitto, M.E. (1988) An estimate of growth and mortality parameters for Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) in the Central Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep., 394: 189-203.

Froglia, C., Magistrelli, F. (1976) Considerazioni sulla pesca delle seppie con attrezzature selettive nell’alto e medio Adriatico. Gazzettino della pesca, 23(5): 1-2.

Gamulin-Brida, H., Ilijanić, V. (1972) Contribution ŕla connaissance des Cephalopodes de l’Adriatique. Acta Adriat., 14 (6): 3-12.

Garoia, Flavio, Guarniero, Ilaria & Tinti, Fausto (2003). Polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellites for the Mediterranean angler species (Lophiidae). Molecular Ecology Notes 3 (2), 294-296.

Garoia, F., Guarniero I., Ramšak, A., Ungaro N., Landi M., Piccinetti, C., Mannini, P., & Tinti, F. (2004) Microsatellite DNA variation reveals high gene flow and panmictic populations in the Adriatic shared stocks of the European squid and cuttlefish (Cephalopoda). Heredity 93(2): 1–9.

Garoia F., Guarniero, I., Piccinetti, C. & Tinti, F. (2004) First Microsatellite Loci of Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus) and their Application to Genetic Structure Analysis of Adriatic Shared Stock. Marine Biotechnology, 6 (5):446-452.

General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM). (2001) Report of the twenty-six session. Lacco Ameno, Ischia, Italy, 10-13 September 2001. GFCM Report. No 26. Rome, FAO, 27 pp.

Ghirardelli, E. (1959a) Contribution ŕ l’étude de la biologie des soles (Solea solea) en moyenne Adriatique. Proc. gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 5: 481-487.

Ghirardelli, E. (1959b) Contribution ŕ la connaissance de la biologie du merlu (Merluccius merluccius L.) eu moyenne Adriatique. Proc. gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 5: 489-494.

Giovanardi, O., Rizzoli, M. (1984) Biological data, collected during expeditions Pipeta, on the whiting, Merlangius merlangius (L.) in the Adriatic Sea. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 149-153.

Giovanardi, O., Rizzoli, M., Jukić, S. (1986) Preliminary consideration on the fishery management of the hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) stock in the Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep., (345): 71-77.

GMS-GRUND (Gruppo Metodologie Statistiche – GRU.N.D). (1998) Valutazioni preliminari relative all’introduzione della taglia minima di 20 cm per il nasello nella realtŕ della pesca a strascico italiana. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(3): 140-155.

Gramitto, M.E. (1998) Molt pattern Identification through gastrolith examination on Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1), 17-23.

Gramitto, M.E., Froglia, C. (1980) Osservazioni sul potenziale reproduttivo dello scampo (Nephrops norvegicus) in Adriatico. Memorie di Biologia Marina e di Oceanografia, 10 (Suppl.): 213-218.

Granić, B., Jukić, S. (1982) Selektivnost i zaštita demerzalnih resursa Jadranskoga mora s posebnim osvrtom na populaciju oslića, Merluccius merluccius (L.), pravilnim izborom veličine okca na saki dubinske povlačne mreže (koće). Ichtyologia. 14 (1): 1-11.

Grubišić, F. (1980) Prilozi za poznavanje sezona mriještenja nekih jadranskih riba u području srednje Dalmacije. Morsko Ribarstvo 32 (4): 151-152.

Grubišić, F. (1982) Ribe, rakovi i školjke Jadrana. Liburnija – Naprijed, Rijeka – Zagreb, 239 pp.

Guarniero, I., Garoia, F., Di Placido, R., Ramšak, A., Mannini, P., Tinti, F. 2003. Species-specific microsatellite loci for the European squid (Loligo vulgaris). Molecular Ecology Notes 3(2): 312-313.

Guarniero I. (2004) Identification of population units of Mediterranean fishery resources by genetic structure analysis. PhD Thesis in Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Ravenna.

Guescini, A., Piccinetti Manfrin, G., Piccinetti, C. (1983) Distribution des larves de Mullus barbatus L. en Adriatique. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Medit., 28(5): 155-158.

Gulland, J.A. (1968) Manual of methods for fish stock assessment. Part I. Fish population analysis. FAO Fisheries Technical Papers (Revision 2) 40: 97 pp.

Haidar, Z. (1970) L’oecologie du rouget (Mullus barbatus L.) en Adriatique orientale. Acta Adriat., 14 (1): 1-94.

Heldt, H. (1938) La reproduction chez les crustacés Decapodes de la famillie des peneides. Ins. Oceanogr., 18: 31-206.

Hrvatski hidrografski institut. (1999) Peljar. Jadransko more – istočna obala. Hrvatski hidrografski institut, Split. 331 pp.

IMBC, UMBSM, IRPEM (1994) Nephrops norvegicus: stock variability and assessment in relation to fishing pressure and environmental factors. Final Report to the Commission Of the European Communities, Contract XIV.1/MED/91/003, 84 p + figures and appendicies.

Jardas, I. (1976) Contribution to the knowledge of the biology of hake in the Adriatic Sea. Rev. Trav. Inst. Peches marit., 40 (3 et 4): 615-618.

Jardas, I. (1987) On the biology and ecology of Lophius species (Teleostei, Lophiidae) in the Adriatic Sea. Proc. V Congr. europ. Ichthyol., Stockholm 1985, 181-185.

Jardas, I. (1996) Jadranska ihtiofauna. Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 536 pp.

Joksimović, A. 1999. Length-weight relationship of pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Montenegrin shelf. Acta Biologica Iugoslavica- Ichthyologia, 31(1): 9-21.

Joksimović, A. 1999. State, Structure and Exploitation Level of Red Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758), Population in the Montenegrin Coastal Waters. M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kragujevac: 73p.

Joksimović, A. 2000. Biomass estimate and maximum sustainable yield of pandora Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758) in trawling fisheries at Montenegrin shelf. Acta Biologica Iugoslavica-Ichthyologia, 32(1): 17-29.

Joksimović, A., 2001. Growth of pandora, Pagellus erythrinus in Montenegrin shelf (South Adriatic). 36th Congress Commision Internationale pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la mer Mediterranee, CIESM,Septembre 24-28. 2001. Monte-Carlo. Conference proceedings.

Joksimović, A., 2004. Mortality of pandora, Pagellus erythrinus in Montenegrin shelf (South Adriatic). 37th Congress Commision Internationale pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la mer Mediterranee, CIESM, June 7-11. 2004. Barcelona. Conference proceedings.

Joksimovic, A. 2005. Population Dynamic of Red mullet Mullus barbatus, Linnaeus, 1758 in the Montenegrin shelf. Doctoral dissertation. Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade: 93p.

Jukić, S. (1971) Studies on the population and catchabilltiy of Norway lobster in the central Adriatic. FAO Stud. Rev., 48: 27-52.

Jukić, S. (1972) Ishrana oslića (Merluccius merluccius), bukve (Boops boops) trlje (Mullus barbatus) i arbuna (Pagellus erythrinus) u Kaštelanskom zaljevu. Acta Adriat., 14 (4): 1-40

Jukić, S. (1974) The Yugoslav Nephrops fishery. Acta Adriat., 15 (8):1-18.

Jukić, S. (1975) Koćarska područja u srednjem Jadranu. Acta Adriat., 17 (1): 1-86.

Jukić, S., Arneri, E. (1984) Distribution of hake (Merluccius merluccius L.), Red mullet (Mullus barbatus L.) and Pandora (Pagellus erythrinus L.) in the Adriatic sea. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 85-91.

Jukić, S., Crnković, D. (1974) Stanje naselja pridnenih jestivih vrsta u Jadranu. Acta Adriat., 16 (8): 137-156.

Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1974) Influence des facteurs biologiques, technologiques, sociaux et économiques sur la pęche en Adraitique. FAO; CGPM (Resume). Varna, Bulgaria, 7-9 Mars 1974.

Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1979) Standing stock estimation and yield per exploitable biomass (YEB) forecast of the Adriatic edible demersal resources. Inv. Pesq., 43 (1): 273-288.

Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1981) Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of demersal resources in the Adriatic sea with some population dynamic estimates. FAO, Fish. Rep., 253: 73-91.

Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1987) Biological and economic aspects of mesh size regulation in the multispecies demersal fishery of the Adriatic Sea. Acta Adriat. 28(1/2): 199-219.

Jukić, S., Piccinetti, C. (1988) Contribution to the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of the application of 40 mm codend mesh size in Adriatic trawl fishery – Eastern Adriatic coast. FAO Fish. Rep. 394: 282-290.

Jukić, S., Županović, Š. (1965) Relations entre la température et l’intensité de l'alimentation chez Mullus barbatus L. et Pagellus erythrinus L. dans Baie de Kaštela. FAO Proc. gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 8: 173-177.

Jukić-Peladić, S., Vrgoč, N., Dadić, V., Krstulović-Šifner, S., Piccinetti, C., Marčeta, B. (1999) Spatial and temporal distribution of some demersal fish populations in the Adriatic Sea described by GIS technique. Acta Adriat. 40: 55-66.

Karlovac, J. (1965) Contribution ŕ la conaissance de l’oecologie du merlu, Merluccius merluccius L., dans le stade planctonique de vie en Adriatique. Rapp. Comm. int. mer Medit., 18 (2): 461-464.

Karlovac, J., Karlovac, O. (1968) Lophius piscatorius L. dans les eaux de la haute Adriatique, dans toutes les phases de sa vie (Note preliminaire). Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 19(3): 537-540.

Karlovac, O. (1949) Le Parapenaeus longirostris (H. Lucas) de la haute Adriatique. Acta Adriat., 3(12): 407-418.

Karlovac, O. (1953) An ecolocical study of Nephrops norvegicus (L) of the high Adriatic. Izv. rep. Rib.biol. Eksp.”Hvar” 1948-49, 5(2C): 1-50.

Karlovac, O. (1959) La nourriture du merlu (Merluccius merluccius L.) de la haute Adriatique. FAO Proc. Gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 5: 333-339.

Kirinčić, J., Lepetić, V. (1955) Recherches sur l’ichthyobentos dans les profondeurs de l’Adriatique méridionale et possibilité d’exploitation au moyen des palangres. Acta Adriat., 7 (1): 1-113.

Krstulović Šifner, S. (2000) Prilog poznavanju biologije i ekologije lignje, Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798) u Jadranu. Master Thesis. Sveučilište u Zagrebu. 98 pp.

Lepetić, V. (1965) Sastav i sezonska dinamika ihtiobentosa i jestivih avertebrata u Bokokotorskom zaljevu i mogućnost njihove eksploatacije. Studia Marina, Kotor, 1: 1-161.

Levi, D., Andreoli, M.G., Arneri, E., Giannetti, G., Rizzo, P. (1994) Otolith reading as a tool for stock identification. Fisheries Research, 20: 97-107.

Levi, D., Froglia, C., Scorcelletti, R. (1971) Selettivitŕ di una rete di tipo relingato (chalut a grande ouverture verticale). Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca, Ancona 1(2): 23-35.

Levi, D., Giannetti, G. (1972) Analisi sullo stato di sfruttamento di una popolazione ittica mediante un modello matematico di cattura e sforzo. Quad. Lab. Tecnol. Pesca, Ancona. 1 (4): 101-114.

Mandić, S. (1984) Cefalopoda južnog Jadrana. Studia Marina, Kotor. 15-16: 3-77.

Mandić, S., Stjepčević, J. (1981) Mouvements migratories de quelques espčces de cephalopodes économiquement importantes dans l’Adriatique meridionale. Rapp. Mer Medit., 27 (5): 213-216.

Manfrin Piccinetti, G., Giovanardi, O. (1984) Données sur la biologie de Sepia officinalis L. dans l’Adriatique obtenues lors de expéditions Pipeta. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 135-138.

Manfrin Piccinetti, G., Rizzoli, M. (1984) Données recueilles au cours des expéditions Pipeta sur la biologie de Eledone moschata (Lam.) en Adriatique. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 139-141.

Mannini, P., Massa, F. (2000) Brief overview of Adriatic fisheries landing trends (1972-97). In: F. Massa and P. Mannini (eds), Report of First Meeting of the Adriamed Coordination Committee. FAO-MiPAF Scientific Cooperation to Support responsible Fisheries in the Adriatic sea. GCP/RER/010/ITA/TD-01: 31-49.

Mantovani, B., Scali, V. (1992) Allozyme characterization of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, of two Adriatic trawling grounds. Acta Adriat., 33(1/2): 209-213.

Marano, G., (ed.) (1985) Valutazione delle risorse ittiche demersali del Basso Adriatico (Anno 1985). Min. Mar. Mer., Roma.

Marano, G., (ed.) (1987) Valutazione delle risorse demersali dell’Adriatico meridionale dal promotorio del Gargano al capo d’Otranto: proseguimento indagine ’87-’88. Min. Mar. Mer., Roma.

Marano, G., (ed.) AA.VV. (1993) Valutazione delle risorse demersali dell’Adriatico meridionale dal promotorio del Gargano al capo d’Otranto: Relazione finale triennio ’90-’93. Min. Mar. Mer., Roma

Marano, G., (ed.) AA.VV. (1996) Valutazione delle risorse demersali dell’Adriatico meridionale dal promotorio del Gargano al Capo d’Otranto: relazione finale triennio ’94-‘96. M. R. A. A. F., Roma

Marano, G., Casavola, N., Vaccarella, R., Paganelli, A., (1977) Osservazioni sulla pesca a strascico lungo il litorale di Bari. Oebalia III: 17-31.

Marano, G., De Zio, V., Pastorelli, A., Rizzi, E., Ungaro, N., Vaccarella, R. (1994) Considerazioni sullo stato di sfruttamento delle risorse demersali (Basso Adriatico). Atti Sem. sulla Regolaz. Sforzo Pesca. Biol. Mar. Medit. 1 (2): 89-94.

Marano, G., De Zio, V., Pastorelli, A., Rizzi E., Ungaro, N., Vaccarella, R., (1993) La valutazione delle risorse demersali dei mari italiani: sintesi dell’attivitŕ operativa “A9” (Basso Adriatico). N.T.R.I.T.P.P., Special Publication, 2:169-171.

Marano, G., Marsan, R., Pastorelli, A.M., Vaccarella, R. (1998a) Areale di distribuzione e pesca dello scampo, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), nelle acque del basso Adriatico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5 (2): 284-292.

Marano, G., Ungaro, N., Marano, C.A., Marsan, R. (1998b) La ricerca sulle risorse demersali del bacino Adriatico sud-occidentale (anni 1985-97): sintesi dei risultati. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5 (3): 109-119.

Marano, G., Ungaro, N., Marzano, M.C., Marsan, R. (1998c) Le risorse demersali dell’Adriatico pugliese: Analisi di una serie storica (‘85-’95) relativa ai dati di cattura e demografia degli stock. Biol.Mar. Medit., 5 (2): 52-67.

Marčeta, B. (1996) Pojavljanja nekaterih vrst rib in glavonožcev v slovenskem morju. Annales (Koper), 6(9): 17-30.

Marrs, S.J., Tuck, I.D., Arneri, E., Atkinson, R.J.A., Santojanni, A., Stevenson, T.D.I. (2000) Improvement of Nephrops stock assessment by use micro-scale mapping of effort and landings. Final Report EC Study Contract 97/0100.

Matta, F. (1954) Il merluzzo del Mediterraneo II. Biol. Pesca Piscicolt. Idrobiol. 9(1): 2-29.

Maurin, C. (1965) Les merlus des mers européennes et nord-ouest africanes. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 18 (2):215-220.

Merker, K., Ninčić, T. (1973) Sastav i gustina bentoskih ihtio-naselja u južnom Jadranu. Studia Marina, Kotor, 6:75-117.

Mortera, J., Levi, D., Cingolani, N. (1984) Progress Report on the PESTAT programme: A simple survey system for the quality check of fisheries statistics. FAO Fish. Rep. 290: 175-177.

Mytilineou, C.H., Castro, M., Gancho, P., Fourtouni, A. (1998a) Growth studies on Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in different areas of Mediterranean Sea and adjacent Atlantic. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1), 43-60.

Mytilineou, C.H., Politou, C.-Y., Fourtouni, A. (1998b) Trawl selectivity studies on Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1), 107-116.

Orsi Relini, L., Zamboni, A., Fiorentino, F., Massi, D. (1998) Reproductive patterns in Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.) of different Mediterranean areas. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1), 25-41.

Pagotto, G., Piccinetti, C. (1982) Censimento della popolazione di Solea vulgaris Quensel 1814. in Adriatico mediante marcatura. Atti del I Seminario Italiano sui Censimenti Faunistici. Metodi e applicabilitŕ alla gestione territoriale, Urbino, 21-22 settembre ’82: 345-359.

Pagotto, G., Piccinetti, C., Specchi, M. (1979) Premičres résultats des campagnes de marquage des soles en Adriatique: déplacements. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Medit., 25/26 (10): 111-112.

Pastorelli A.M., Vaccarella, R., Marano, G., Ungaro, N. (1996) I crostacei dei fondi strascicabili del basso Adriatico. Nova Thalassia, 12: 27-35.

Pastorelli, A.M., Vaccarella, R., Marsan, R., Marzano, M.C. (1998) Valutazione delle risorse demersali nel basso Adriatico pugliese (1990-1995): Cefalopodi. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5 (2): 326-335.

Pastorelli, A.M., Vaccarella, R., de Zio, V. (1995) Distribuzione dei cefalopodi commerciali nel basso Adriatico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 2 (2): 501-502.

Pauly, D. (1984) Fish population dynamics in tropical waters: a manual for use with programmable calculators. ICLARM Studies and Rewiev 8, 325 pp.

Peres, J.M., Gamulin-Brida, H. (1973) Biološka oceanografija: Bentos, Bentoska bionomija Jadranskog mora. Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 493 pp.

Piccinetti, C. (1967) Studio delle variazioni della produzione delle sogliole nell’Adriatico occidentale in rapporto agli attrezzi di pesca utilizzati. Note Lab. Biol. Mar. Fano, 2(4): 57-68.

Piccinetti, C., Giovanardi, O. (1984) Données biologiques sur Solea vulgaris Quensel en Adriatique. FAO, Fish. Rep., 290: 117-121.

Piccinetti, C., Jukić, S. (1984) Considération sur les premiers resultats de la campagne de chalutage Pipeta. FAO Fish. Rep., (290): 181-185.

Piccinetti, C., Jukić, S. (1988) Élaboration des donnés sur les ressources demersales de la haute et moyenne Adriatique. FAO Fish. Rep., 394: 172-173.

Piccinetti, C., Piccinetti Manfrin, G. (1971a) Osservazioni sull’alimentazione del merluzzo (Merluccius merluccius L.) in Alto e Medio Adriatico. Note Lab. Biol. Mar. Fano, 4(3): 41-64.

Piccinetti, C., Piccinetti Manfrin, G. (1971b) Osservazioni sulla media vertebrale di merluzzi dell’Alto e Medio Adriatico. Note Lab. Biol. Mar. Fano, 4(4): 65-84.

Piccinetti, C., Piccinetti Manfrin, G. (1994) Considerazioni sullo stato di sfruttamento delle risorse demersali (Alto e Medio Adriatico). Biol. Mar. Medit., 1(2): 77-87.

Ramšak, Andreja, Garoia, Flavio, Guarniero, Ilaria, Mannini, Piero & Tinti, Fausto (2003) Novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for the common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Molecular Ecology Notes 3 (4), 553-555.

Relini, G. (1998) I progressi della ricerca italiana sulla pesca a strascico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(2): 3-21.

Relini, G., Bertrand, J., Zamboni, A. (eds.) (1999) Synthesis of the knowledge on bottom fishery resources in Central Mediterranean (Italy and Corsica). Biol. Mar. Medit., 6 (suppl. 1).

Rijavec, L. (1975) Biologija i dinamika populacije Pagellus erythrinus (L.) u Bokokotorskom zalivu i otvorenom području južnog Jadrana. Studia Marina, 8: 3-109.

Rijavec, L., Županović, Š. (1965) A contribution to the knowledge of biology of Pagellus erythrinus L. in the middle Adriatic. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Comm. int. Explor. scient. Mer Medit., 18 (2): 195-200.

Sarano, F. (1986) Cycle ovarien du merlu, Merluccius merluccius, poisson a ponte fractionee. Rev. Trav. Pechea Marit. 48(1-2): 65-76.

Sardŕ, F. (1998a) Nephrops norvegicus (L). Comparative biology and fishery in the Mediterranean Sea. Introduction, conclusion and recommendation. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1): 5-15.

Sardŕ, F. (1998b) Comparative technical aspects of the Nephrops norvegicus (L.) fishery in the northern Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina, 62(Suppl. 1): 101-106.

Sardŕ, F., Lleonart, J., Cartes, J.E. (1998) An analysis of the population dynamics of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina, 62 (Suppl.1): 135-143.

Scaccini, A. (1947a) Contributo alla conoscenza della biologia dei Mullidi nell’Adriatico medio occidentale. Note Lab. Biol. Mar. Fano, 1(1): 1-8

Scaccini, A. (1947b) L’accrescimento e la proporzione dei sessi nella popolazione adriatica di Mullus barbatus Rond. . Note Lab. Biol. Mar. Fano, 1(3):17-24

Scaccini, A., Furlani, F. (1965) Variations des captures de soles dans l'Adriatique occidentale en function des engins utilisés. Proc. gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 8: 385-386.

Soro, S., Piccinetti Manfrin, G. (1989) Biologia e pesca di Cefalopodi in Adriatico. Nova Thalassia, 10(1): 493-498.

Šarčević, M. (1992) Ocjena obimnosti i biološke razine dopuštenog iskorištavanja populacije škampa (Nephrops norvegicus) u Jabučkoj kotlini. Master thesis. Sveučilište u Zagrebu. 72 p.

Šoljan, T. (1948) Ribe Jadrana. Fauna i flora Jadrana, 1. Inst. Oceanogr. Ribar., Split, 437 p.

Šoljan, T. (1977) Ribarstveno-biološka ekspedicija m/b “Hvar” u otvorenom Jadranu (1948-1949). Acta Adriat. 1(1-2): 1-22.

Štirn, J., Bolje, A. (1989) Fondi pridnenih rib in drugih užitnih organizmov obalnih vod SFRJ v Tržaškem zalivu. Zaključno poročilo. Raziskovalna naloga, Droga Portorož in IBU, MBP, Ljubljana, Piran, 243 p.

Tanaka, S. (1960) Studies on the dynamics and the management of fish populations. Bull. Tokai. Reg. Fish. Res. Lab., 28: 1-200.

Tortonese, E. (1975) Fauna d'Italia. Osteichthyes. Calderni Ed. Bologna. 11: 636 p.

Ungaro, N., Marano, G., Marsan, R., Pastorelli, A.M., (1999) On the reproduction of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) in the Southern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea): sex ratio, maturity length and potential fecundity. Crustacean Issues, 12: 553-561.

Ungaro, N., Marano, C. A., D’Uggento, A. (1998) Relazioni tra specie demersali del bacino Adriatico sud-occidentale: Analisi statistica di serie storiche. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5 (1): 196-202.

Ungaro, N., Marano, G., Marsan, R. (1996) The use of swept area method for the estimate of biomass: a first attempt relative to three demersal finfishes (hake, red mullet, four spotted megrim) in South-Western Adriatic Sea. FAO Fish. Rep. 533 (suppl.): 101-104.

Ungaro, N., Marano, G., Piccinetti, C. (1995a) Adriatic, Black Sea: the whiting doubt. Cybium, 19 (3): 311-315.

Ungaro, N., Marano, G., Vaccarella, R. (1995b) Comparazione tra aree batiali strascicabili del basso Adriatico mediante l’utilizzo dell’analisi fattoriale delle corrispondenze. Biol. Mar. Medit. 2 (2): 185-189.

Ungaro, N., Rizzi, E., Marano, G. (1993) Note sulla biologia e pesca di Merluccius merluccius (L.) nell’Adriatico pugliese. Biologia Marina, suppl., 1: 329-334.

Ungaro, N., Rizzi, E., Marzano, M.C. (1994) Utilizzo del modello di Beverton e Holt, “rendimento per recluta (Y/R)”, per la risorsa Mullus barbatus L., nell’Adriatico pugliese. Biol. Mar. Medit., 1 (1): 317-318.

Vallisneri, M., Piccinetti, C., Stagni, A.M., Colombari, A., Tinti, F. (2000) Dinamica di popolazione, accrescimento, riproduzione di Solea vulgaris (Quensel 1806) nell’alto Adriatico. Biol. Mar. Medit., 7 (1): 65-70.

Vrgoč, N. (1995) Obilježja rasta populacije oslića (Merluccius merluccius), trlje blatarice (Mullus barbatus), arbuna (Pagellus erythrinus) i škampa (Nephrops norvegicus) Jadranskog mora. Master Thesis. Sveučilište u Zagrebu, 101 pp.

Vrgoč, N. (2000) Struktura i dinamika pridnenih zajednica riba Jadranskog mora. Disertacija. Sveučilište u Zagrebu. 198 pp.

Zei, M. (1940) Pregled rezultata dosadašnjeg ribarstveno-biološkog istraživanja Oceanografskog instituta u kanalima Hrvatskog primorja. God. Oceanogr. inst. Kralj. Jugosl., 2:137-147.

Zei, M. (1949) Typical sex-reversal in Teleosts. Proc. Zool. Soc., 119 (4): 917-920.

Zei, M., Sabioncello, I. (1940) Prilog poznavanju naselja bentoskih riba u kanalima srednje Dalmacije. God. Oceanogr. inst. Kralj. Jugosl., 2:103-115.

Zei, M., Županović, Š. (1961) Contribution to the sexual cycle and sex reversal in Pagellus erythrinus (L.). Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Comm. int. Explor. scient. Mer Medit., 17 (2): 263-267.

Zore-Armanda, M. (1967) O sezonskim promjenama površinskog strujanja u Jadranu, Hidrografski godišnjak, Split, 32 pp.

Županović, Š. (1961a) Contribution ŕ la conaissance de la biologie de Merluccius merluccius L. dans l’Adriatique moyenne. FAO Proc. Gen. Fish. Coun. Medit. 6: 145-150.

Županović, Š. (1961b) Kvantitativno-kvalitativna analiza ribljih naselja kanala sednjeg Jadrana. Acta Adriat. 9(3):151 pp.

Županović, Š. (1963) Contribution a la conaissance de la biologie du Mullus barbatus (L) dans l'Adriatique moyene. Rapp. Com. int. Mer Medit., 17(2): 346-362.

Županović, Š. (1968) Study of hake (Merluccius merluccius) biology and population dynamics in the Central Adriatic. Stud. Rev. Gen. Fish. Coun. Medit., 32: 24 pp.

Županović, Š., Jardas, I. (1986) A contribution to the study of biology and population dynamics of the Adriatic hake, Merluccius merluccius (L). Acta Adriat. 27(1/2): 97-146

Županović, Š., Jardas, I. (1989) Fauna i flora Jadrana. Logos Split. 526 pp.

Županović, Š., Rijavec, L. (1980) Biology and population dynamics of Pagellus erythrinus (L) in the insular zone of the middle Adriatic. Acta Adriat. 21(2): 203-226.




© FAO-AdriaMed project  - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
(room C353)  Viale delle Terme di Caracalla - 00153 Rome -Italy- ::: tel  +39 06 570 56092/55467 ::: fax +39 06 570 55188 - 

[online]. Rome. Updated. [Cited ].